середа, 31 липня 2019 р.
I am writing this letter regarding my request for funding to attend a business writing course at Florida International University. This course is only held once a year in our area and it will be on the 11 day of July ending on the 13 day of July 2013. The business writing course is the only course held of its kind and it is the most cost-effective professional development opportunity available to me this year. The writing course offers all the tools, techniques and concepts related to business writing, such as critical problem solving with employee communication skills, this course will be a major benefit and provide me with additional knowledge on skills I already possess; by teaching me how to write more clear, crisp and effective. The course will also guide me on how to dissect business documents so that our organizational initiatives will accelerate and performance should increase within Smith International, I will also gain more knowledge on the clarity, impact, and overall professionalism of on-the-job e-mails, letters, and reports which I deal with on a day-to-day basis. The course will be taught by Dr. James Johnson; a world renowned professor for Harvard University Business School, Dr.Ã Johnson has written several books and has lectured at more than 100 universities worldwide, his expertise and recognition in business writing has not gone unnoticed. Dr. James Johnson has been recognized for his work with U. S government organizations for his ability to critique an array of documents, his ability to analyze policies of privately sealed government documents. He has made his mark and comprehension on business corporations and governments all over the world. The business writing course that will be held at Florida International University will be a cost of ($250 value) this will include a business writing certification, recognizing the completion of the course, all the information printed on paper and presented, is free for all writing course participants, and can be shared with my colleagues who are not able to attend the course at this time. Thank you for considering this request for me to attend the business writing course.
вівторок, 30 липня 2019 р.
The trust and care of patients to health care providers has been on the decline for several decades (David A. Thom, 2004) Crimes committed by health care professionals, occur at all levels. Patients are more involved with their care, due to more accessible resources on the internet. Patients can research their physician criminal charges. The internet allows the patients to obtain health care information. In addition, the burden is on the health care providers. Although health care providers are aware they can review the criminal history, negligence still occurs. Despite the awareness of patient and health care providers, health care crimes, such as narcotics, are ongoing. This paper will discuss health care professional regulation and criminal liability. Health Care Professional Neurologist A Neurologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of the nervous systems, the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). Dr. Lambry, a neurologist from Kaiser Permanente, stated Ã¢â¬Å"It takes approximately 12 years to complete your education, pre-med and internship.Ã¢â¬ The first step for potential neurologist is get a science degree, which averages three to four years (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). In their junior year, neurologist must take and pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), which is a standardized exam required for admission by all medical schools (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). Once they pass the MCAT, neurologist must submit an application to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). AAMC operates the American Medical College Application Service and the Electronic Residency Application Service and AACOM providesÃ services to its members, collects data and operates the online application for students (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). Next is medical school, on the average medical school takes four years. The school must be accredited by Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). LCME is an accrediting body for educational programs at the schools of medicine (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). The first two years focus on coursework and the last two is rotation through medical specialties. Once complete they will be prepared to become board certified neurologist. This will earn them, their M.D. degree. According to Chron neurologist must complete part of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). USMLE is a multi-part examination and physicians must pass this examination before they can practice medicine. The final step is the internship with other senior neurologist. At the end of the internship, neurologist will have to take another part of the USMLE, so they can practice un-supervised. Neurologist must complete additional training on the area they are going specialize in. Areas include brain injury, sleep disorders, pain disorders, vascular neurology, epilepsy, hospice and palliative medicine, neurodevelopment disorders (Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist, 2014). Another certification needs to be completed by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). ABPN promotes excellence in practice, certification and maintenance of certification process (American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, 2014). Each state has its own medical board that controls licensing of physicians, so they can practice medicine (Medical Law and Ethics, 2012). The Florida Board of Medicine will license, discipline and rehabilitate physicians, so that they are fit and competent for the public. Practicing medicine in Florida, is a privilege (Florida Board of Medicine, 2014)).Ã¢â¬ Identify the civil complaint process for patients of suspected professional incompetence The medical board receives and reviews complaints on physicians from patients, staff and other physicians. The first step is to file a complaint in writing to the medical board. The next step is to identify the alleged misconduct or incompetence. Some examples are refusing service because of age, sex or race. Misconduct and incompetence allegations are kept confidential, due to the seriousness. These allegations are serious and must have strong evidence of a violation, before a hearing can be heldÃ (Florida Board of Medicine, 2014). The regulatory agencies investigating allegations, determining, applying disciplinary action The medical board will investigate complaints about the physician. If founded, it will take any disciplinary action needed. The following are types of complaints that a physician can be discipline for: substandard care, prescribing issues, sexual misconduct, impairment, unlicensed practice, unprofessional conduct and office practice issues. The board will not provide any legal advice to either the physician or his/her legal representative (Florida Board of Medicine, 2014). Identify criminal liabilities for the health care professional Complaints that involve a patient death or serious bodily injury caused by the physician are given the highest priority and forwarded to the law enforcement agency in that jurisdiction. These complaints are given the highest priority, due to criminal charges. The board will provide the physician with sufficient notice of any charges and then perform a thorough i nvestigation of the charges (Medical Law and Ethics, 2012). Criminal cases for a physician begin when they are accused of breaking the law. A physician found guilty of criminal charges will have their licensed suspended or revoked, with possible fines and possible prison time. Risk management strategies and quality assurance program to reduce the risk negligence Risk management strategies are monitored by the Agency for Health Care Administration for the State of Florida. It provides reports, tracks, trending and problem resolution for health care providers and facilities. This regulatory agencies, also provides education and training for doctors and their staff. This is to make sure they are in state compliance with rules and regulations (Office of Risk Management and Patient Safety, 2014). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) has such policies that must be followed by doctors and staff for patient right to privacy and confidentiality. Health care professionals must comply and follow rules and regulations (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 2014). The federal, state and local agencies are the oversight of all health care providers and health care clinics, hospitals and outpatient care. When the agencies receives a complaint, it is forwarded to the proper licensed board for an investigation into the claim. If there is a violation, the board will take all disciplinary actions, to include; reprimands, fines, training and education or loss of licensed toÃ practice. The quality assurance program for the state of Florida is maintained by the Florida Health Department. It provides quality and variety activities that control the entry and ongoing performance of health facilities and physicians. There is continuous improvement activities to measure and improve patient care (Florida Health, 2014) The process for criminal charges for the described criminal behavior A physician can have their license taken or suspended for professional criminal charges. A case of criminal charges start when a physician is accused of breaking the law. One of the major problems is the unauthorized prescribing of narcotics. A Florida physician criminal charge was of professional, it included falsifying three applications for Drug Enforcement and Administration (DEA) and unauthorized prescriptions for controlled substance, in which it lead to a drug overdose of a patient. Diversion Control a department within DEA, is to prevent, detect and investigate controlled drugs, while ensuring legitimate medical needs. His licensed were revoked immediately and denied for reinstatement, as recently as November 2014 (United States Department of Justice, 2014). Conclusion Heath care professionals, are expected to have professional manner at all times. Physicians diagnose, treat illnesses, disease, injuries and save lives. Patients file malpractice or negligence suits against physicians. Although health care providers are aware they can review the criminal history, negligence still occurs. This brings to a conclusion on how professional regulation and criminal liability is addressed by the Florida Board of Medicine. The medical board receives and reviews complaints on physicians from patients, staff and other physicians. The medical board will investigate complaints about the physician. Criminal cases for a physician begin when they are accused of breaking the law. A physician can have their license taken or suspended for professional criminal charges. The regulatory agencies, also provides education and training for doctors and their staff. References American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. (2014). Retrieved from American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology: http://www.abpn.com/ Bonnie F. Fremgen, P. (2012). Medical Law and Ethics. Prentice Hall. Complaint Information. (2012). Retrieved from The Medical Board of California: http://www.mbc.ca.gov/ David A. Thom, M. A. (2004, July). Measuring PatientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Trust In Physicians When Assessing Quality of Care. Retrieved from Health Affairs: http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/23/4/124.full.pdf+html Educational Requirements for being a Neurologist. (2014). Retrieved from Educational Portal: http://education-portal.com/articles/Become_a_Neurologist_Step-by-Step_Career_Guide.html Florida Board of Medicine. (2014, October 15). Retrieved from Florida Board of Medicine: http://flboardofmedicine.gov/ Florida Health. (2014). Retrieved from Florida Health Department: http://www.floridahealth.gov/index.html Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. (2014). Retrieved from United States Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/p rivacy/ Office of Diversion Control. (2014). Retrieved from United States Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration: http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/actions/2014/fr1118.htm Office of Risk Management and Patient Safety. (2014). Retrieved from Agency for Health Care Administration: http://ahca.myflorida.com/SCHS/RiskMgtPubSaftey/RiskManagement.shtml
понеділок, 29 липня 2019 р.
My personal Philosophy of Education - Essay Example Angels exist and thus form one of the fundamental beliefs. The angels have the mandate to worship God and God alone. The angels are also powerful but tend to obey the almighty and act only to his command. The most famous angel is angel Gabriel, who is the messenger God sent to bring the Quran to Prophet Muhammad. There are books that God gave to his messengers. The books tend to be a proof of the existence of god and the blueprint that guides the behavior of humankind. One of the books is the Quran that is the most vital book in the religion of Islam. There is a provision that God demands the Quran be kept away from destruction through corruption and distortion. Consequently, Muslims are of the perspective that all prophets were human beings with no supernatural abilities. The only difference is that they found favor in the eyes of Allah. The term refers to a divine destiny that is a belief by the Muslims. The belief in the divine destiny does not restrict human beings from exploding their freewill. Correspondingly, Muslims are of the belief that god gave human beings the freedom to freewill. Therefore, the making of choices, whether good or bad, belongs solely to human beings and God does not intervene in the process. In addition, the divine destiny has various composite beliefs (Hamid, August 2003). There is the belief in that God is omniscient. There is also the belief of keeping records of all happenings and the belief in that the will of God always takes part. Moreover, there is the belief that the Almighty is the maker of all creatures plus everything that is in the universe. Values shape up the character of an individual. The main origin of the values is as put forward by Islam. The Islam religion requires that every Muslim should worship the only true God, Allah. Every Muslim should always be kind and humble as well as be honorable to his or her parents. No one should engage in killings that have the label of mercy killings
неділя, 28 липня 2019 р.
Physical Mettalurgy of engineering materials - Essay Example 6. The three modes of heat transfer that occur during the heat treatment of steel are: Conduction Heat transfer is the heating process where heat energy is transferred from a body with a higher temperature to a body with lower temperature by direct contact of both bodies. Convection heat transfer is the heating process where heat is transferred by the motion of a heated medium, it could either be gas or liquid, to the body which is to be heated. Radiation heat transfer is the heating process by which heat is emitted from a higher temperature surface into space, then absorbed by a lower temperature surface thru the radiation of heat waves. 8. Stopped flow technique is limited to the one that does not have optical signal for the reaction of interest and the signals cannot be interpreted rigorously if the extinction coefficients of its intermediates are not known. Chemical quench flow allows the mixing of two reactants after which it is followed by quencing of chemical agents usually acid or base. Rapid optical photolisis chamber is based on the worldwide leading quench-flow and mounts to the same system. atomic size factor. The size factor is said to be favorable if the size of the atom does not differ by more than 14-15% from the solvent atom. The electrochemical effect, will have a difference in electronegativity between small solvent and solute atoms.The relative valency effect is when a metal of higher valency will dissolve a metal of a lower valency. Therefore, to complete solid solubility, both elements should have the same valency. In the crystal structure, the formation of the series of continuous solid solutions is posible if the components have the same crystal
Online Gambling - Essay Example In Australia, gaming machine gambling turnover is a major one across all the gambling forms; the turnover is around $ 107,924 million. The essay aims to provide an insight into the internet gambling in Australia with a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages. This essay starts with an introduction to the Australian online gambling industry. A conclusion has been inferred from the analysis part. Online Gambling in Australia: The roots of the same Ever since the first European settlers had arrived on shore, gambling has become an inherent part of Australian culture. British influence has given considerable contribution to give gambling a firm ground for its establishment and enlargement. Quickly it became significantly popular form of entertainment in Australia. In the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, in Australia, gambling was present in a number of organised forms. So, it was quite natural that Australia would emerge as one of those first countries who would get their hands on these newly intro duced technologies, allowing them to get indulge into internet gambling. On 8th April, 1999, Australia became the first country across the globe to legalize the online gambling. Ã¢â¬Å"Not only was Australia the first country to legalize online gambling under a fully regulated jurisdiction, but Lasseters Online is also the world's first internet casino to be operated by a land-based casino, situated in the Northern TerritoryÃ¢â¬ (Online Casino Archives, 2008). Lasseters had its belief in the online gaming industry. From day one, the company realised the prospectus of the international gambling. Even before other Australian states, it has opened its doors to the international customers. The Australian government swiftly appreciated the potential market success... The public and legal gambling history of Australia began in the early period of nineteenth century. The history started off with gambling on horse racing. In the year 1810, the first publicly organised race meeting was held in New South Wales. In the year 1861, the Melbourne cup, a globally recognised race, was first introduced in Victoria. In the early twentieth century, lotteries were introduced. In the year 1920, the Golden casket lottery was established by the Queensland Government. The very first regulated online casino started off in the year 1999. Since the 1990s, the expansion of gambling has experienced a considerable growth; this has been true for Australia and several other countries. At this time, the electronic gaming machines had been introduced in the hotels and casinos across Australia. In the year 1956, these were introduced in the Australian clubs. At the first stage, gaming machines were not originally introduced in the hotels as these do not have the same communit y focus or the same types of community engagements as the Australian clubs. For the clubs the gambling was the most significant activity to earn revenue while in hotels and casinos the trend was to serve beer and other alcohol. In this new era, the gaming machines have developed a lot to introduce a highly sophisticated computer programmed machines. The modern and technically enhanced gaming machines can be programmed to offer small wins to maintain the excitement.This also helps the participants to be hopeful of large wins. Presently, Australia seems to be one of the most attractive online gambling location in entire Oceania as the country got several licensed internet gambling sites. Gambling has a very long history. Since the inception, gambling has emerged as a controversial issue.
субота, 27 липня 2019 р.
The qualities of the hero and antihero - Essay Example Playing the hero, Indiana Jones is an idealist. He starts a principled journey against the powerful Nazis and their leader Adolf Hitler in search of the Ark of the Pledge. Indy stands up to bad guys, Nazi thugs, who are determined to acquire the ark. He sacrificed himself against great odds. For instance he compromised his distress of snake in order to acquire the ark. Indiana role as a hero also demonstrates when he rescues Marion and reclaims the ark from Belloq and the Dietrich. Jones is always pro-active and makes effective decisions. For instance, when he surrenders rather than destroy the ark, an important historical artifact, now in the possession of Belloq. Indiana always succeeded in his goals, which is a true definition of a hero. He managed to keep the agreement out of the reach of the Nazis. Playing the role of an anti-hero in the movie Payback, Mel Gibson (Porter) is a realist. Porter is a criminal: a killer, a thief, a thug, a gambler, a cheater, and a liar. He murdered many, including Resnick and Philip. Self-interest drives him as shown when he narrated; he had $70,000 robbed from him, and that is what he desires to get back The heroism in him demonstrates through the vengeance mentality. He stands up to authority in tracking the money that had passed into the hands of "the Outfit". In order to reach Resnick, the Porter first dealt with Arthur Stegman, the Chinese trios, crime bosses from the Outfit, and the unethical police detectives Leary an d Hicks. Most notably as an antihero, Porter eventually fails in his goal of reclaiming the money. Harrison Ford depicted as Indiana Jones is evidently a masculine character. Indiana shows heroism through the enormous resources he possesses for the use of the gun, fists and whip when relevant. Indiana also demonstrates the character of a rebel. In a general view, Indiana
пʼятниця, 26 липня 2019 р.
An Evaluation of the Teaching Staff Shortage in London Schools - Essay Example eased concern in England as well as in other countries with regards to teacher supply shortages along with the issues on the recruitment and retention of teachers (House of Commons- Education and Skills Committee 2004). For instance, despite a considerable number of 60 million teachers worldwide, there is still a need to employ another 15 to 35 million teachers. Schools have faced considerable shortages in English and Math teachers while there have been a decrease in the number of applicants for teacher training. Teacher applicants for physics, geography, and information and communications technology have also experienced a considerable drop (Eurydice 2002). A large number of studies have primarily delved into the reasons why potential teachers have been attracted to the profession as well as the factors that contribute to their intentions of leaving the profession, including pay and work demands, and turnover patterns (Johnson-Wilder et al 2003). Recent evidence has also associated staffing problems with specific issues that serve as challenges for schools affected, such as the inability of schools to cope with labor market difficulties in order to for them to offer higher wages and attract qualified candidates, the lack of proficient teachers in certain subjects, and the increased number of teachers who are teaching outside of their subjects (Harris and Adams 2007). It has been suggested that institutions for teacher training have not been able to produce adequate numbers of qualified teachers who can met such demands. Other demographic trends, including the increase of student enrollments along with the increased rate of teacher turnover owing to an aging teaching workforce, have also contributed to the school staffing crisis. Owing to the continued shortfall of... This paper approves that private and public schools in London have experienced considerable shortages in their teaching workforce which have been attributed to various concerns. Teachers can either be motivated or discouraged to provide education and learning to students based on a number of factors, including their perceived support from the administration, the overall environment that they are working in, the salary they receive in exchange for their performance, the behavior of students, as well as personal issues. These can all influence the ways with which teachers view their profession as meaningful and valuable and, thus, affect their intentions and decisions for voluntary turnover. This report makes a conclusion that increasing the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s support and attention towards their staff members should also be demonstrated along with the implementation of strategies that can enhance facilities and teaching performance. Values should also be taught to students by both the school and their families to ensure that these young individuals exemplify favorable behavior towards their peers and teachers. School safety and discipline along with a more professional environment that employs strategies for empowering teachers and boosting their morale may have a positive impact on their recruitment and retention among public and private schools. Future studies should also look into more specific factors that can be experienced by teachers in the primary, secondary, and college level as well, such as racial discrimination or academic field preferences; differences in terms of geographic locations (suburban versus metropolitan schools) or the impact of teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ age and gender can also be explored.
четвер, 25 липня 2019 р.
Unit 3 Introduction to American Court System - Essay Example Moreover, this system declines a hierarchical model of searching justice and favors the coordinate model (Dammer & Albanese, 2010). The coordinate model exercised by this system divides authority for developing, giving evidence and deciding on the verdict. This division checks power among the eventual decision makers. Therefore, this system manifests the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty, eliminates government abuse, and finally averts lawyersÃ¢â¬â¢ abuse. The rule of evidence incorporated by this system has an overall effect on the capacity of the system to identify truth because of delay. Subjection of both parties on the same formalities results to scant comfort. This will not guarantee a fair result because it is inadequate at the conceptual level (Leo, 2009). Moreover, inequality amid the parties leads to unjust advantage for the trial because the rules of evidence support the accused. This system is also deficient because of its inequality. This is because substantial responsibility is within the power of the lawyers for the accused. This is a weakness of this system because there is no representation for the accused. Conclusively, this system requires a neutral fact seeker. It encourages the contrasting sides to search and present their most persuasive evidence. However, the fact seeker is forbidden from making judgments before winding up the
середа, 24 липня 2019 р.
Information Technology Project - Research Proposal Example Being an IT student, keeping only objectives in hand don't completes my traits. Though it is the world of proofs and proving objectives with the presentations and documentations. Every deliverable clutches some fundamentals of this project. Deliverables till the end of the project will be as per defined: This is the first deliverable that embrace the contents about Information Technology. What is Information Technology When it is started Since then how it is improved What is the status of Information Technology now days What kinds of projects and their importance in real world Etc. This document is a small thesis on Information Technology with a little introduction to the real topic. This deliverable accomplish first three above-mentioned objectives of the project. A sample of professionals is gathered to have a little talk upon the topic. Few famous and well-known software houses are being listed. Moreover to reach these software houses and contact the entire professionals, references are gathered. This list along with the professional names holds their contacts, their references and name of people they are reference by. Reason to make them our samples. This deliverable, strengths up our project research and help in the accomplishment of our forth above mentioned objective. Questionnaire For IT Professionals This deliverable is a complete document carrying related questions focusing the topic and finding what may be the reasons or strategies to avoid projects to be failed. This deliverable is submit to get the approval from the supervisor for proceedings. The questionnaire holds both close-ended and open-ended questions related to their experience and professionalism. Interview Details With Project Managers A detail interview is held with different project managers of different software houses who talk about different strategies to manage a project and keeping things sufficiently arranged that it wouldn't cause a failure. This is all documented and is shown to the supervisor so that they also can agree with the conclusion at the end comes out. List of samples; Questionnaire, and this document; all three helps to achieve successfully the fourth objective. Analysis Report It includes the combine result that can be concluded from the questionnaire and interview statistically. They are represented graphically in charts and add it with their details. Thesis Last but not least, a document prepared after a complete research from interviews, questionnaire, Internet and book on the reasons for and strategies of avoiding project failure. This document includes objectives in detail, all research work, and how each and every objective is
вівторок, 23 липня 2019 р.
Manditory Immunization in children reduce the risk of disease for everyone - Essay Example Herd immunity Ã¢â¬â not a matter of personal choice The first reason I would like to put forward to support my argument is the reason of herd immunity. I would like to show an example how this issue affects the whole society. My mom is a teacher who has been in the profession for the last 20 years. Recently she had her spleen out and hence had a very vulnerable immune system. But she is now on a leave for three weeks without pay as advised by my family doctor and the responsibility of this suffering goes to a student who attended the class with a whooping cough. Though my mother was not in direct contact with the child, she was victimized, and then, the fate of all other teachers and the students who were in close contact with the culprit is clear. Only cynicism would make someone argue that the parents of that child were unaware about, or, incapable of, immunizations. The point I would like to put forward here is of long lasting social consequences if not taken critically. The pl ight of immune suppressed people like that of my mother should be taken very seriously. Those who have organ transplantation or autoimmune diseases are unable to take proper preventive measures and it is the responsibility of the society to see that these people are not infected. In addition, there is the category of health workers who are forced to work in close contact with the ill ones, thus a high risk group. Thus, in my opinion, it is not at all a personal decision to be taken but like Ottenberg, Wu, Poland, Jacobson, Koenig, and Tilburt (2011) say, it is right from the part of government to restrict individual liberties to promote public welfare, like traffic rules, sanitation laws and environmental regulations. The right of children to lead a healthy life I think it is the responsibility of parents to immunize their children as children at that age are too naive and unable to take decisions. The present-day increase in whooping cough among children is the result of the lukewa rm attitude of parents towards immunization. As they have not witnessed the seriousness of the diseases they are immunizing themselves against, people are losing their interest in the immunization programs leading to such incidents like the increase in whooping cough. Thus, in my opinion, it is necessary to make immunization of children mandatory for parents. Otherwise, due to ignorance or negligence, they tend to avoid it. The increased number of travelers My third argument is related to the increased number of travelers moving in and out of the country. As we all know, though a disease disappeared from the country, it can reappear again through such carriers and if people are not immunized, it will lead to serious health problems in the country. Hence, in my opinion, people should not show a lethargic attitude towards immunization and should ensure immunization to their children. Points against immunization- ignorance and superstition There are a large number of allegations made b y people against vaccination. Those who are against the preventive measures have a lot in their repertoire. One serious allegation against vaccination is that mumps, measles and rubella vaccine (MMR) could lead to autism or CrohnÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (Borysiewicz). However, studies have proved that this allegation is baseless. Faras, Ateeqi and Tidmarsh (2010) have shown that MMR does not have any connection with the occurrence of Autism. In
понеділок, 22 липня 2019 р.
Potato Tuber Lab Essay Introduction: Osmosis is a form of diffusion in which water diffuses through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. This form of diffusion takes place when the molecules in high concentration are too large to move through the membrane. Three factors that determine cell membrane permeability are shape, size, and polarity. For this experiment, it must be kept in mind that sucrose is not permeable to the cell membrane, for it is too large to pass through. The cell membrane functions to protect, separate, and regulate what goes in and out of a cell. It also allows cells to control their internal chemical environment and the availability of important materials. In a hypertonic solution, there is a greater concentration of solute inside a cell compared to another solution (water will flow from out of the potato cells and the mass will decrease). In a hypotonic solution, there is a lower concentration of solute compared to another solution (water will flow into the potato cells and the mass will increase). In this potato tuber lab experiment, the weight of each potato tuber after being sliced into thin disks and rinsed was taken and recorded. The potato disks were then individually placed in sucrose solutions for exactly an hour, each cup being swirled every ten minutes. At the end of the hour, each group of potato tuber slices was weighed a second time to determine if there was a change in mass due to the sucrose solution. The percent change in weight among the different potato tubings was determined in order to confirm or deny our hypotheses. My null hypothesis was that the potato would not be affected by the sucrose solution, the osmotic concentration would neither increase nor decrease, therefore there would be no change in mass seen. My alternate hypothesis was that the potato would be affected by the sucrose solution (final mass) by having a higher or a lower osmotic concentration than the initial mass, therefore there will be a change in mass seen. Results: The initial weight of the sliced potato tubers ranged from 4.4g to 5.4g. The final weight of the sliced and soaked potato tubers ranged from 3.6g to 5.7g. These results show that the 0.1 solution of sucrose was hypotonic, causing the sliced potato pieces to gain mass, as to where the remaining solutions of sucrose (.00, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) were hypertonic, causing the sliced potato pieces to lose mass. This shows that the potato tubers were affected by the sucrose solutions. This conclusion is represented in the graph given below. Discussion: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the osmotic concentration of sucrose within the potato tuber slices. Upon coming up with the final results of the experiment, the osmotic concentration of sucrose was calculated to be .06M. For this experiment, an isotonic solution will have a molarity of .06M, as the best fit line hits the x axis at .06M. In comparison, a hypotonic solution will have a concentration ranging from 0 M to .06M, and a hypertonic solution will have a concentration ranging from .06M or higher. This caused me to accept the alternate hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis; therefore, the potato was affected by the sucrose solution as we saw a change in mass of the potato tuber slices.
Concept of Love Essay Love is a complex emotion of attachment and sometimes obsession. It cannot be classified so easily, though; it cannot be stuffed into a social concept and left there. Some people search for what seems their whole lifetime for love, whereas others may seem to fall in and out of love on a regular basis. Of course, people can love many things, but the love between two people is unique and special. It is a feeling of trust and wholeness. Love is rarely defined because everyone experiences it differently. What one person thinks is love, another may think is craze or vice versa. How does one know he or she is in love? How is it possible to distinguish between the love of romance and the love shared between friends? In order to understand love, people need to first understand the two major types of love which can be described as romantic love and friendship love. People often define romantic love based on its difference from friendship love. Would you kiss your best friend? Perhaps, but it is not necessarily the things you do with your romantic partner that makes your love spark. Romantic lovers are usually on each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s minds all the time. Couples make large life decisions based on their romantic partners because they cannot imagine life without those people. Romantic love guides a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and can sometimes cloud it as to what the right decisions might be. After all, romantic love can be extremely selfless. Friendship love can often turn into romantic love, as it has many times throughout history, but the birth of romantic love between friends will often kill the love of friendship. In other words, friends who become romantic lovers rarely can go back to being Ã¢â¬Å"just friends. Why is it that romantic love is so overpowering? The love of friendship can be very strong, but it is the emotional intensity of romantic love that forever changes the simplicity of the love between friends. Friendship love does not have all the same guidelines that romantic love seems to have. Each friend couple may have a unique kind of love between each other. Friendship love is best described as a warm feeling between people. Girlfriends may have different friendship love for each other than a male and female friend pair may have; the same for male friends. Male and Female friends may sometimes undergo a lot of pressure from other friends and family to turn their friendship love into romantic love, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always work. There is a line that friends may cross over, and to know that line is to know the difference between romantic and friendship love. Friends have complete trust for someone and naturally want to be around him/her. People who love each other want to make each other happy; they want to be there as confidants, helpers, and company. Friendship love is often compared to the love between siblings as well. In many cases, a sibling is just as good a friend as any. Society will not accept romantic love between relatives, but friendship love is encouraged and an amazing aspect to have. Everybody experiences love in a different way and may not agree with the concepts that it is dealt with. In the end, it does not matter whether or not the kind of love someone feels fits into any category. Love is personal, and the important thing is, is that it makes people happy and feels cared for. Whether people have romantic or friendship love, love is meant to mean that it is an emotion of a strong affection and personal attachment, and a virtue representing all of human kindness, compassion, and affection.
неділя, 21 липня 2019 р.
Malaysias Luxury Goods Sector Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction In the 80s, luxury goods that used to belong to the upper class became visible, recognizable, and accessible to the public. Hence, the market for luxury goods went through an enormous demand growth spurt, and developed into a significant economic sector in the 90s (Roux and Floch 1996). Louis Vuitton reported sales of nearly 2.5 billion Euros, increasing its net income by 80% between 2002 and 2004 (LVMH 2005). LVMH MoÃ «t Hennessy Louis Vuitton, the worlds leading luxury group, achieved revenue of 4 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008. Organic revenue increased by 12% compared to the same period in 2007, which was also a period of strong growth. As a result of the negative impact of exchange rates, reported revenue growth is 5%. All business groups recorded double-digit organic revenue growth in the period, with the exception of Wines Spirits. The Group continued to record excellent performances in Asia, the US and Europe. A good attains the label Ã¢â¬Å"luxuryÃ¢â¬ when it has the particular design, quality, performance or durability that is remarkably superior to the comparable substitute. Luxury goods have a lot to do with the consumers psyche and how it makes the person feel. In generally, luxury goods are considered to be the highest quality, and price in the market. Brand consciousness among the Malaysian society has been increasing over the past few years, especially with the young generation who are now appetite for the luxury goods and brands especially from college, university students and young working adults. The population of the youth for aged between 20 and 29 aged is 20% which nearly make up the entire population in Malaysia. Understanding the consumer behavior in this age group would be pivotal in ensuring luxury brands can better position themselves in the market and will be useful in marketing building brands. It makes good reason that research on the factor influences generation Y on the purchasing decision of luxury goods. 1.2 Background of Research Ã¢â¬Å"Asia is considered by many international brands as a major sales region, with the improving personal financial status of Asian consumers and with the opening up of various developing markets, there is huge room for growth in the luxury sector,Ã¢â¬ said Karen Watson, Chief Communications Officer, ACNielsen Company(Consumer and Designer Brands , April 2008). In Malaysia, the luxury goods sector has been growing along with the rest of the world over the past ten years. We can see that some of the shopping complex such as Kuala Lumpur City Center (KLCC) Mall that sell luxury goods and for up market. Over the years, the setting up for the up market such as Pavilions, The Garden and Star Hills have catered to the increasing demand of luxury goods. Ã¢â¬Å"In Malaysia the apparel industry has undergone great transformation with more and more brands entering the market, and the recent past years have seen the entry of numerous international brands. The apparel industry is worth RM 3.26 billion (approximately USD 1.1 billion) (ProtÃ ©gÃ © AssociatesÃ¢â¬Å¸ Independent Market Report (2007)Ã¢â¬ (Khan and Khan, 2008) The study on consumer behavior in relevance to luxury goods has gained a lot of interest over the course of the decades. Early research on a framework to define luxury and that of luxury seeking consumers started in the 19th century by Rae (1834). The early research was showed that a summary of the luxury seeking consumer behaviour which can be seen by Vigneron and Johnson (1999) where the values are conspicuous, unique, social and quality. Conspicuous and quality could be seen in the summary luxury seeking framework by Vigneron and Johnson (1999) who presented the luxury value perceptions., It has been stated as the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"buying to impress othersÃ¢â¬ by concerning the motives for consuming luxury goods (Wiedman, Hennigs, Siebel, 2007). Other researches were instrumental on other factors which influence purchase decisions, Khan and Khan (2005) provided the result by showing how reference groups influence on purchase decisions. It focuses on reference groups which are groups that individuals refer when making a purchase. From a consumer behaviour perspective, reference groups are important because they inform and make individuals aware of specific products and brands; provide individuals with opportunities to compare their own thinking with the attitudes and behaviour of the group; and influence individuals to adopt attitudes and behaviour that are consistent with the norms of the group (Khan and Khan, 2005). Aesthetics appeal on purchasing decision also gained the attention of the researchers. Researchers such as done by Virginie, Irina and Pierre (2009) and Dubois, Laurent, Czellar (2001) influence the purchase decision on luxury goods. 1.3 Research Question Most of the consumers purchase the luxury goods for one of the following reasons. Purchasing decisions could be influence by the social factor example noted by (Khan and Khan, 2005).Other factors that should be taken into consideration include brand image, conspicuous and quality value which effect the purchase decisions before making the purchase. Aesthetics are also playing a crucial role influence on purchase of luxury goods Based on the Literature Review in Chapter 2, which provides a detailed look at all the factors and variables above, the research questions at hand has to do with the present variables and the purchase decisions. The questions addressed in this research are: What are the critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) influence generations Y in purchasing decision of luxury goods in Malaysia? Is there any interaction between critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) and generation Ys purchase decision on luxury goods in Malaysia? How the critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) have impacts on generation Ys purchasing decision on luxury goods in Malaysia? 1.4 Research Objective This study aims to address the following objectives of the study: Main Objective: To determine and identify the factors influence generation Y in purchasing decision of luxury products in Malaysia. Specific objectives: To identify the critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) influence generation Y in purchasing decision of luxury products in Malaysia. To determine relationship between critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) and generation Ys purchasing decision of luxury goods in Malaysia To determine the effect of critical factors (reference groups, perceived conspicuous, perceived quality, brand image and aesthetics) on purchasing decision of luxury goods in Malaysia. 1.5 Significant of the Study The luxury goods market is growing rapidly and it is important for research to be done to understand the factors and variables that influence Generation Y purchase luxury goods in Malaysia. The research is important for a number of reasons. The factors influence purchasing decision or consumer behaviours toward luxury goods research has been done in American, Europe or Asia but there is a lack of research regarding purchase decisions on luxury brand products in Malaysia. The only research has been done was by Khan and Khan (2005). The research was about the gender differences in the purchase of luxury goods and covered with social influences and marketing influences. 1.6 Scope of the study In this research, the research will be conducted under the scope of the purchasing of luxury goods. The research will investigate the factors that influence the generation Y in purchasing decision of luxury goods in Malaysia. This research is going to focus on generation Y which includes males and females in Malaysia. The age the range of this research on generation Y between 20 to 29. This group of generation Y was chosen because they are college students, university students and young working adults. They are the consumers that showing the greatest purchasing power in the luxury goods market. Questionnaire will be given to the generation Y to know the factors that influence them in purchasing decision on luxury goods. 1.7 Organization of the Research Project The outline of this thesis can be divided into three main parts. Chapter 1 would be the introduction to the paper, where an understanding of the luxury goods market would be presented, along with the trends the market is heading. A background of the study is also provided, citing the work done by past researchers and their findings. This chapter also provides a clear understanding of the problem statements as well as the objectives of this research paper. Chapter 1 would also justify the need for this research to carried out and provide a summary of the research methodology used to carry out the survey. Chapter 2 would provide a review on the findings and results of past researchers. Chapter 2 titled literature review would be the assessment on research topics of interest to the researcher, such as topics concerning the factors that influence the purchase of luxury goods. Factors or variables that are being discussed in this chapter include the social influences, perceived conspicuous value, perceived quality value, brand image and aesthetics Onwards to chapter 3 which is titles research methodology, this chapter would detail the relationships of all the variables present with the theoretical framework. The development of the research hypotheses would also be presented in this chapter along with the sampling design and procedures that would be used in the data collection process. Chapter 3 would then round up by pointing out the methods that would be used for data analysis as well as the variety of tests that would be used to test the hypotheses. Chapter 4 is the Ã¢â¬Å"Data AnalysisÃ¢â¬ , presents and analyses the raw data collected from the survey. After that, SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) will be used to present the most accurate statistic data and graph. Chapter 5 explains the outcomes of the testing of the hypotheses determined from Chapter 4: Data Analysis. The acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is discussed as well. Additionally, the concluded results of the hypothesis testing from this study are compared with results from previous researches to identify the differences and similarities. 1.8 Conclusion This chapter has laid the foundation for the entire research. A background of the study was also given to show the progress made by past researchers on the topic at hand. An understanding of the luxury goods industry was presented along with the research questions and objectives this research intends to meet. Thus, the research question, research issues, limitations of the research and outline of the research have been presented, which will provide a guideline for the research. The above information can work as a base and lead into the detail interpretation on the research afterwards. Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.0Definition of Luxury Goods The word Ã¢â¬Ëluxury can be defined as state of life in which has uses things that please the senses or pleasing to have but not essential. Ã¢â¬Å"A good attains the label as a Ã¢â¬Å"luxuryÃ¢â¬ when it has a particular design, quality, performance or durability that is remarkably superior to the comparable substitutesÃ¢â¬ (Snapshot of U.S Luxury Good Market, 2007). Dubois, Laurent and Czellar (2001) and Survanasuddhi (2007) stated a definition of the nature and characteristics of the concept of luxury. The six facets are excellent quality, very high price, scarcity and uniqueness, aesthetics and polysensuality, ancestral heritage and personal history and superfluousness. Luxury goods are rising in popularity especially as consumers buying behavior is becoming more symbolized. Consumers feel that by owning luxury products can express their personality and set them apart. Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"luxury goods have been defined as goods for which the mere use or display of a particular branded product brings prestige on the owner, apart from any functional utilityÃ¢â¬ (Nia and Zaikowsky,2000) The term Ã¢â¬Ëprestige was defined as it consists of consumers motivations for chasing technical superiority, uniqueness, signaling wealth and status well as aesthetics appeal (Vigneron and Johnson, 1999). Ã¢â¬ËPrestige and Ã¢â¬Ëluxury are used synonymously in the VIgneron and Johnsons research. Vigneron and Johnson (1999) categorized three types of prestige brand as upmarket brands, premium brands and luxury brands, respectively in an increasing order of prestige. Hence, it was expected that people would have different perceptions of the level of prestige for the same brands, and that the overall prestige level of a brand would consider the prestige perceptions from different people. Ã¢â¬Å"Luxury brands can be described as premium priced brands that consumers purchase for their psychological values (symbolic and hedonic), and not predominately for their economical and functional valueÃ¢â¬ (Nueno and Quelch 1998; Stegeman, 2006). However, the definition of luxury goods or brands cannot be fully recognized. The definition of luxury will be different and may not be the same for another researcher. Chadha Husband (2006) definition limits itself in that it only pertains to luxury fashion goods instead there are other luxury goods that are also both universally available and accepted as luxury. The definition of luxury brands have been defined as fashionable and high quality consumers goods made by reputed luxury brands which contained wearable fashion goods such as handbag, wallet, shoes and belt (Chadha and Husband, 2006; Heinemann, 2008). Fashion can be reflection of the social, economic, political and artistic forces of the time. Accoding to Gao, Norton, Zhang, To (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"luxury fashion goods are apparel, accessories, handbags, shoes, watches, jewellery, and perfume for which use or display of particular branded products brings prestige to owners, apart from any functional utilityÃ¢â¬ . Snapshot of U.S Luxury Good Market (2007) stated fashion group represent the major product sector in the luxury goods market. It is important to know that the survey showed that Ã¢â¬Å"one sixth (16%) of the worlds consumers claim to buy designer brandsÃ¢â¬ (ACNielsen, 2008). For this research, the term luxury goods can be defined as the brands that are defined as luxurious in the annual Ã¢â¬Å"Consumer and Designer Brand Report 2008Ã¢â¬ by the global Nielson firm which the survey is the largest and it identified the following goods as the luxury fashion goods. Calvin Klien Giorgio Armani Celine Ralph Lauren Louis Vuitton Ferragamo Diesel Burberry Chloe Chanel Versace Marc Jacobs Christian Dior Prada Gucci Givenchy DKNY Emporio Armani Valentino Hermes Fendi Yves Saint Lauren Max Mara The fashion goods that show above are not the only goods that are stated as luxury in this research. Consumers allow to evaluate and include other brands which they think is luxury fashion goods for them. Furthermore, there are many opinions and views of luxury from different leaders viewpoint stated in KPMG research (Managing Luxury Brand Growth, 2006). Luxury is explained in the table below as following: Leaders Name and Company Definition 1. Guy Salter Private Investor, Deputy Chairman of Walpole, the British Luxury goods organization Because luxury matters in a way that didnt matter before. Increasingly, luxury is big business: the luxury segment is growing and according to most projections it will continue to grow for the next ten to fifteen years. 2. Belinda Earl, Jaeger Groups chief executive Jaeger is a luxury British brand renowned for designing stylish, innovative and superb quality womenswear, menswear and accessories. None of us are in the business selling necessities; luxury is the business of creating and satisfying desires. 3. Richard Purdey of gun makers James Purdey and Sons Famous British gun maker of London, and the name is synonymous with the very finest sporting shotguns and rifles. Purdeys hold or have held numerous warrants of appointment as gun and rifle makers to the British and other European royal families. A real luxury brands has got to have total integrity. It has to be the buyer that says Ã¢â¬Ëthis is luxury. 4. Theo Fennell Theo Fennell is the jewellery maker by using his name for his company Ã¢â¬ËTheo Fennel in London Luxury is something that everyone wants and nobody needs. 5. Joseph Wan of Harvey Nichols CEO of retailer Harvey Nichols Harvey Nichols is an international luxury lifestyle store, renowned both in the UK and internationally for the breadth and depth of its exclusive fashion merchandise. It offers many of the worlds most prestigious brands in womenswear, menswear, accessories, beauty, food and home. Luxury is about history. A luxury brand is a lifestyle concept and to be sustainable it has to have history, including a history of quality merchandise and of real luxury customers.. 6. Raphael le Masne de Chermont, of Shanghai Tang Executive Chair of Shanghai Tang Shanghai Tang is the first luxury brand emerging design from Chiana It is not in the price, it is in the pleasure you give to the customer. It is to do with creativity, a harmonious aesthetic with attention to details. 7.Christian Hafner Head of Branding at Swarovski Luxury is about history, authenticity, depth and being a partner. Buying a luxury product is like a love affair. 2.1Generation Y Generation Y are also referred as the Millennial Generation or Generation Next or Net Generation describes the demographic cohort following Generation X. Its members are often referred to as Millennials or Echo Boomers. According to Shareef Mahdavi (2008), Generation Y is the term used to describe children of the Baby Boomer generation, typically born between 1977 and 1995. McCrindle (2008) described the generation Y born in between 1980 and 1994. They are also referred to as Ã¢â¬ËMillenials and Ã¢â¬ËEcho Boomers in the western society, especially American Society. Generation Y are individuals who born between 1977 to 1994 that have a free spending spirit and consist of 71 million 8 to 25 year olds (Horovitz, 2002; Sriviroj 2007). The wealthiest groups of people are between the ages of 19 to 25 year olds who are either employed in full time jobs or part time work even though there are group amount of generation Y consumers. The greatest purchasing power in the Generation Y college student takes place within the part-time student, who spends over $400 monthly on discretionary purchases while often maintaining full-time employment (Gardyn, 2002). Those who are either part time or at full time work are college students (Martin Turley, 2004). Students always work as part time work to find extra funding for their excessive spending during the university hopdays or breaks. There are average 80% of students attending college or university are employed (Martin Turley, 2004). The financial knowledge of the average Generation Y consumer also earns them the awareness and respect of marketers even though their spending power alone is enough reason to pay significant attention to this group of consumers. The financial knowledge of the average Generation Y consumer also earns them the respect of marketers today. Generation Y consumers have a remarkable amount of disposable income due to the increasing of greater level in the economy over the past decade (Martin Turley, 2004). Besides that, the research suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"Generation Y has more discretionary income than the previous generations and prefer to spend it on themselves rather than others. A reason for this may be because they are starting families later in life and therefore are able to spend their income on themselves without having to worry about othersÃ¢â¬ (Angela Hughes, 2008) The important of this group of consumers has taken on the greater level of meaning for marketer. Ã¢â¬Å"While the Baby Boomers grew up with television advertising influencing how they were marketed to and how they bought products, Generation Y has many different mediums that they grew up with, which is what makes marketing to them so much more difficultÃ¢â¬ (Angela Hughes, 2008). Marketers are playing the large part influence consumers behaviour through the knowledge of fashion. The reason is that teenagers are concerned about fashion value more than any other age groups (Koester and May,1985; Sriviroj 2007). One of the most influencers is the media because of media consist of a wide range of technology such as television, internet, mobile phone and DVD. (Angela Hughes, 2008, Sriviroj 2007). The internet has permanently changed the way that this generation shops by giving the information about products than the companies give the consumer. According to Angela Hughes (2008), he in ternet is also a powerful tool for this generation in spreading opinions about products to their peers. The largest differences between Generation Y and those that preceded them are Generation Ys tremendous awareness and confidence. Generation Y is more likely than any previous generation to look up information before purchasing a product. Generation Y is more desirable to own the products that they know their peers will accept just to show they are part of the group. On the other hand, in the research of Sriviroj (2007) stated that television is strongly influence these generation which affect them as they will reflect their perceptions in Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ as they have seen in television world. Ã¢â¬Å"Of the paid advertising channels of online, outdoor, newspaper, magazine, radio, TV and Theatrical, TV and newspaper are the most trusted mediaÃ¢â¬ (Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey, 2009). Ã¢â¬Å"Generation Y is poised to take over as the largest and most lucrative consumer group for marketers, a position that has long been held by the Baby Boomer generationÃ¢â¬ (Angela Hughes, 2008). In order to understand the generation Y consumers, it is important to think about factors that motivate these individuals towards the purchasing of luxury goods. 2.2 Social Influence Previous research shows that group influences play an important role in influencing the purchase decisions (Brinberg and Plimpton, 1986; Martin and Bush 2000; Mascareches and Higby, 1993). The group members have been recognized as determinant of behavior. The fact that the people act in accordance with a frame of reference produced by the group to which they belong is a long accepted and sound premise (Merton and Rossi, 1949). However, many individuals did not behave like the majority of people in their recognized group (e.g., social class or educational level).The casual observation showed perplexing contradictions between group membership and behaviors. According to Merton and Rossi (1994), Ã¢â¬Å"a partial solution was found in the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"reference groupÃ¢â¬ , which recognizes that people frequently orient themselves to other than membership group in shaping their behaviors and evaluations and that reference groups can perform a diversity of functions.Ã¢â¬ Reference groups are generally defined as Ã¢â¬Å"actual or imaginary institutions, individuals, or groups conceived of having significant relevance upon an individualÃ¢â¬Å¸s evaluations, aspirations, or behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Lessig and Park, 1975; Pertina, Prybutok, Zhang, 2008). Besides that, reference group also can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a group of people that significantly influence an individuals behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Reference group are important because they make the individual aware to a specific goods or brands and influence individuals to adopt attitude and behaviour that are consistent with the norm of the group. The normative and informative social influences are the most widely accepted influence. Normative social influence is based on the tendency to conform to the expectation of others while informational influence is based on the desire to make informed decisions and optimize the choice (Stephen Yang and He, 2009; Khan and Khan, 2005). Berden and Etzel (1982) examined that the reference group influence by product and the brand purchase decision. Previous research studied group influences in marketing strategy and consumers purchasing behaviour. Specifically, three types of group influences are studied which is information, utilitarian and value expressive influences (Stephen Yang and He; Bearden and Etzel, 1982; Makgosa and Mohube, 2007; Pertina, Prybutok, Zhang, 2008). Informational influence is reflected when an individual perceives enhancement of knowledge and ability to cope with environment when using information from opinion leaders, experts, or product users. Utilitarian influence manifests through the process of compliance with those who can exercise reward or punishment power. Value-expressive reference group function is based on the identification process whereas an individual who associates oneself with a group to enhance self-concept adopts this groups consumption patterns. Reference groups have been found to specify what the desirable and undesirable goods are (Bristol and Malengburg, 2005; Khan and Khan, 2005). Many researchers have argued that individuals are more susceptible to reference groups influence when the goods is conspicuous and publicly consumed (Bearden and Etzel, 1982; Makgosa and Mohube, 2007; Batra, Homer, Kahle, 2009; Morris and White, 2009). The influence of a reference group on consumer behavior can be done in one of two ways, either directly or indirectly. In the research Stephen Yang and He (2009), reference groups refer the group that individual has frequent contact with (such as family members, work associates, classmates, friends, etc.). These group is refers to the groups used by an individual to direct one purchasing behaviour in particular situation. These are generally referred as direct reference group (Schiffman and Kanuk, 1994). On the other hand, it included Ã¢â¬Å"the groups that does not have the membership in or direct contact with, such as certain expected groups or people in a certain social level (Stephen Yang and He, 2009). Based on the work of Khan and Khan (2005), the direct reference group influence was illustrated as Ã¢â¬Å"families, friends, co-worker, formal social groups and other leisure groupsÃ¢â¬ . This differs from the indirect reference groups comprise of Ã¢â¬Å"individuals and groups t hat influence consumers purchase intentions without having and direct contact such as celebrities and sport personalitiesÃ¢â¬ (Khan and Khan, 2005). 2.2.1 Direct Reference Groups Direct reference groups can be defined as direct contact from the individual or groups with the consumers. With the reference from Ã¢â¬ ¦.., it showed that families, friends, co-worker, formal social groups and other leisure groups are under this categories. A person has several reference groups for various subjects or different decisions normally. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"a woman may consult one reference group when she is purchasing a car and a different reference group for lingerieÃ¢â¬ (Consumer Behaviour, no date).These direct reference groups are the one who frequently contact with the consumers, It can be seen that the groups views from direct reference groups whether purchase the goods in order to be like group members, believing in group members decisions or a sign of wanting to fit in the group. The previous researchers have carried out the investigations on how the role models (parents, relatives, peers) influence teenagers purchase intentions and behavior (Martin and Bush; Subramanian and Subramanian, 1995)) and how parents and peers influence various products and brands purchase decisions (Bearden and Etzel, 1982). Researcher has shown that overt family communication can and often does influence younger consumers attitudes toward purchases and their consumption patterns (Martin and Bush). Consumers always do not feel confident enough to evaluate alone. They will consult a friend or partner by inviting them along to a potential purchase can enhance the process. Ã¢â¬Å"Having a peer present meant that shop assistants become largely irrelevant and that evaluation of a brand centered largely on initial peer reaction to fit, style and price-based decisionsÃ¢â¬ (Guy W.Mullarkey, 2001). Ã¢â¬Å"It is also interesting to note that of all the three direct reference groups, friends tend to exert the greatest influence where individuals purchase brands because they identify themselves with their peersÃ¢â¬ (Khan and Khan, 2005). From the numerous researches that have been done, direct reference groups influence make an immediate impact to the consumers. Therefore, it can be concluded that direct reference groups play a significant role in providing relevant information, deemed necessary to make a purchase and conform the group norm. 2.2.2 Indirect Reference Groups Indirect reference groups is the group that influence consumers purchase decisions without having any direct contact with the consumers such as celebrities and sport personalities. Khan and Khan (2005) defined celebrities as Ã¢â¬Å"individuals who are well known to the public for their advertisements in areas other than product class endorsedÃ¢â¬ and that they represent Ã¢â¬Å"an idealisation of lifeÃ¢â¬ . In luxury goods industry, it will be much easier by connecting the brand to a celebrity and is even viewed, in some instances, as a necessity. This is because a luxury goods company is in the business of building and selling dreams, and nothing is more helpful in making such dreams concrete and thus more believable in the eyes of the consumer, than communicating it through a famous personality. Celebrities are being increasingly used in marketing communication by marketers to lend personality to their products in India (Matrade Chennai, 2005).
субота, 20 липня 2019 р.
Culture, Race, and Gender in Sports When a person of a specific gender enters a non-traditional sport for their gender/sex, many social and moral issues will arise challenging that person involved in that particular sport. The intentions of the individual will be questioned as well as their personal interest in the sport. Before any of these questions are asked, there must be a redefinition of gender roles, femininity, and masculinity. In order for a person to enter a non-traditional sport for their gender/sex without being criticize about gender morality, society must set flexible definitions for femininity and masculinity. Society must begin to accept the variety of sports both men and women can compete in regardless of the traditional gender specific sports notions of the past. Women should be allowed to participate in traditional "male" sports like hockey, bodybuilding, and boxing without being stereotyped as lesbians. Men should be allowed to participate in traditional "female" sports like synchronized swimming and field hockey without losing their "masculinity". A perso...
Fossil Fuels: Are they Worth the Cost? Fossil fuels are a very important part of our society today. Natural gas, Coal, and oil are the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s primary and most important source of energy. Ã¢â¬Å"90% of the energy we use in this country [USA] comes from fossil fuels.Ã¢â¬ (Source 3) Unfortunately, there are costs of using these fossil fuels to run our society. Some costs are obvious such as the cost of labor, equipment and supplies needed to extract, refine and transport the fossil fuels. These costs are taken care of in electricity bills, in the price of gasoline for automobiles and other governmental and company funding. There are many other costs that are less obvious. These costs are the effects fossil fuels have on our environment and on human health. Air pollution caused by the burning of coal and oil as well as dust in mines is causing problems for human health. The environment is suffering from acid rain, global warming and water and air pollution. Many times, the costs go unpaid for a nd unnoticed. It is imperative that we as a society take responsibility and strive to reduce the negative effects of fossil fuels on our environment. The global warming is a major environmental issue that is caused by the use of fossil fuels. When fossil fuels are burned, carbon dioxide is emitted. It captures heat in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. What is happening is that the more carbon dioxide emitted the warmer the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate is getting. I know some may be thinking that warm weather is great! Keep the global warming and the carbon dioxide coming! Global warming, however, is seriously dangerous for our society, economy, and our environment. Global warming can cause coastal cities to go under water due to a rise in sea level because of melting glaciers. Agriculture will be greatly affected as well. If temperatures keep rising, farmers will have to go through more extreme droughts. Global warming is caused by the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and has many adverse effects on the environment, our societies, and our economies. Another cost of fossil fuels is air pollution.
пʼятниця, 19 липня 2019 р.
Life and Work of Langston Hughes James Mercer Langston Hughes, an African American, became a well known poet, novelist, journalist, and playwright. During the Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes gained fame and respect for his ability to express the Black American experiences in his works. He was one of the most original and versatile of the twentieth century black writers. Influenced by Paul Laurence Dunbar, Carl Dandburg, and his grandmother Carrie Mercer Langston Hughes, Langston Hughes began writing creatively while he was still a young boy (Barksdale 14). Born in Joplin Missouri, Langston Hughes lived with both his parents until they separated. Because his father immigrated to Mexico and his mother was often away, Hughes was brought up in Lawrence, Kansas, by his grandmother Mary Langston. His grandmother embedded Hughes? sense of dedication. Her second husband (Hughes's grandfather) was a fierce abolitionist. She helped Hughes to see the cause of social justice. Although she told him wonderful stories about Frederick Douglas and Sojourner Truth and took him to hear Booker T. Washington, Hughes did not get all the attention he needed. Furthermore, Hughes felt hurt by both his parents and was unable to understand why he was not allowed to live with either of them. These feelings of rejection caused him to grow up very insecure and unsure of himself. Because his childhood was a lonely time, he fought the loneliness by reading different books. ?Books began to happen to me, and I began to believe in nothing but books and the wonderful world in books where if people suffered, they suffered in beautiful language, not in monosyllables, as we did in Kansas? (Hughes 16). Langston Hughes began writing in high school, and even at this early age was developing the voice that made him famous. High school teacher and classmates recognized Hughes writing talent, and Hughes had his first pieces of verse published in the Central High Monthly, a sophisticated school magazine. An English teacher introduced him to poets such as Carl Sandburg and Walt Whitman, and these became Hughes?s earliest influences. In 1921 he entered Columbia University, but left after an unhappy year. Langston was very fascinated and influenced by Harlem?s people and the life itself, there. The Big Sea, the first volume of his autobiography, provided ?such a crucial first person account of the era? that much of what we know about the Harlem Renaissance we know from Hughes?
четвер, 18 липня 2019 р.
Beatrice said, Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever happened, we all done itÃ¢â¬ in one of the final scenes in Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Ã¢â¬Å"A View From The BridgeÃ¢â¬ . I disagree with the above quotation, in my opinion, only three characters are to blame. Those being Eddie, Catherine and Rodolfo. Many factors became culpable for EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall in the concluding scene, such as his obsession with Catherine, CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s flirtatious behaviour, the arrival of Rodolfo and so forth. Yet, many of these factors evolve around the character of Eddie. Therefore, if I had to point a finger of blame at one character alone, it would be Eddie. In the beginning of the play, our initial response to Eddie is that he dominates the household. He provides a father figure for Catherine, as he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want her to expose herself to the attention of other men in their community. Eddie shows a lot of interest in Catherine and her appearance, he informed her of how she was Ã¢â¬Å"walkinÃ¢â¬â¢ wavyÃ¢â¬ and that her skirt was Ã¢â¬Å"too shortÃ¢â¬ . The way Eddie made his opinion known and how his obsession affected his lifestyle, is obviously going to have a negative effect on him for the rest of his life. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on Eddie soon jeopardised EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his wife, Beatrice. Eddie tried to please Catherine, whilst he became Ã¢â¬Å"quickly resentfulÃ¢â¬ when talking to his wife. We can tell immediately of how this situation cannot stay this way, some event will have to occur for Eddie to make up his mind about who and what he wants. When the submarines, Marco and Rodolfo are introduced, EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s jealous streak and competitiveness both become evident and culpable for the hostile welcome he greeted the cousins with. Rodolfo made an immediate impact on Catherine, who showed a lot of interest in the illegal immigrant. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Rodolfo and RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings for her infuriate Eddie. Eddie seems jealous and unwanted to a certain extent. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s blunt attitude towards Rodolfo spells trouble, as we can tell at some point this will come to a head. For example, Rodolfo begins to sing, much to the pleasure of Catherine and Beatrice, but Eddie interrupts this and tells Rodolfo to, Ã¢â¬Å"wait a minuteÃ¢â¬ . This seems as if Eddie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like Rodolfo entertaining, especially singing this song that could well have been aimed at Catherine. A View From The Bridge Essay The Play Ã¢â¬Å"A View From The BridgeÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is set in the 1950s in Brooklyn, America in a small cramped apartment, focusing the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention on to the tension in this household. It is a tragedy about an Italian American man called Eddie Carbone. It is a story of self destruction that Miller suggests is inevitable when a strong man like Eddie defies the standards of what his culture holds to be right and wrong. Eddie and his wife Beatrice have brought up BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s niece Catherine. Catherine is now old enough to go out for work. Eddie is very protective over her and is reluctant to let her go out for work. When BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s cousins Rodolpho and Marco arrive as illegal immigrants, Catherine falls in love with Rodolpho. Eddie becomes jealous as Catherine moves further away from him but never admits it. Throughout the play Eddie tries to destroy Rodolpho and as a final desperate measure he betrays him and his brother to the authorities. In his community this is unforgivable. Marco is so mad that he finally kills Eddie before he is deported. The play ends with everyone losing something. I found it very difficult to decide who I felt most sympathy for in the play because ultimately, everyone lost something. Eddie dies a sad broken man. Beatrice weeps over the loss of her husband. Rodolpho and Catherine are sorry for EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s death and Marco is deported and loses his goal of earning money to send home. Eddie is a strong, impulsive man. He acts by instinct and prejudice. He is convinced just by looking at Rodolpho that he is a homosexual and unfit to marry his niece, whom he is over protective of. This becomes clear in his conversation with Alfieri about Rodolpho. Eddie says, Ã¢â¬Å"he ainÃ¢â¬â¢t rightÃ¢â¬ and he also says, Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a blonde guy. LikeÃ¢â¬ ¦ platinum. Ã¢â¬ Eddie thinks that Rodolpho is homosexual just because he has blonde hair. He suggests that Rodolpho is weak when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"I mean if you close the paper fast Ã¢â¬â you could blow him over,Ã¢â¬ showing how he believes Rodolpho is not Ã¢â¬ËmanlyÃ¢â¬â¢ enough to marry his niece. In his mind he neither understands nor admits his true feeling towards Catherine. Alfieri confronts him about this, Ã¢â¬Å"She wants to get married, Eddie. She canÃ¢â¬â¢t marry you can she? Ã¢â¬ Eddie is shocked by the suggestion and replies Ã¢â¬ËfuriouslyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢re you talkinÃ¢â¬â¢ about, marry me! I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what the hell youÃ¢â¬â¢re talkinÃ¢â¬â¢ about! Ã¢â¬ He refuses to admit that his feeling for Catherine is more than fatherly. To him, AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion is absurd and unacceptable. In fact, he is only lying to himself and pushing himself one step closer to his own demise. A View from the Bridge Essay Why and How Does Eddie Carbone Change As The Play Progresses? What Leads to His Death? How Do You Think an Audience would respond To the Changes in his Personality As They Watch Him Destroy Himself? Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s A View from the Bridge is set in the 1950s, when communities were forced to reconcile between American culture and the Italian community culture that surrounds. The cultural and moral difference between the two provides one of the great conflicts in the play. Eddie is made to choose between the two, which questions his loyalty to his family. The play explores relationships. Eddie Carbone is a tragic protagonist who needs to believe that his masculinity denies any sexual desires. To him, being homosexual is Ã¢â¬Å"not rightÃ¢â¬ ; this shows his insecurity of being a dominant character. His strong emotions for his niece suggest incestuous desires. Becoming suspicious of his own motives, Eddie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realise these feelings until at the very end. His feelings for Catherine are suppressed. He transfers this sexual frustration into a hatred for Marco and Rodolpho, which causes him to act completely irrationally. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s fear need to secure his good name from Marco is a result of his failure to Ã¢â¬ËprotectÃ¢â¬â¢ Catherine. The community witness his loyalty die away due to his commitment to keeping Catherine to himself, and turning his vengeance into a need for acceptance by spending his last moments fighting Marco for his good name in the community. According to Eddie, men should protect the innocent and provide a better life for their family. Because of this devotion, he believes that men should be respected and not told what to do. Ã¢â¬Å"I do what I feel like doinÃ¢â¬â¢ or what I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like doin'Ã¢â¬ . This concept stays in EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s mind throughout the play. He exercises his authority. He believes that loyalty should stay strong, not only within a family, but the whole community. The neighbours look out for each other. The audience notices that heÃ¢â¬â¢s a character with passionate beliefs. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a poor immigrant from Sicily. He thinks that he has worked hard to get to where they are now. Ã¢â¬Å"I worked like a dog twenty years so a punk could have herÃ¢â¬ . He feels that immigrants should work as hard as he had done. This is why Eddie is seen as a proud man; he has reached so far in life, without any failures as of yet, and is determined to maintain his earned respect. Again, he believes the tight neighbourhood he resides in shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t betray one other, especially if the Italian culture is questioned. He lets illegal immigrants stay with him Ã¢â¬Å"TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be thankfulÃ¢â¬ . Readers believe that heÃ¢â¬â¢s a generous character at the start, even when he uses this generous act to prove that his loyalty is still strong at the end. When suggested that the only thing he could do to get back at Rodolpho was to betray the family, he reclined at first. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Jesus, no, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do nothinÃ¢â¬â¢ about that, I mean-Ã¢â¬Å". His beliefs for a strong community stayed persistent, until he became confused over his motives. Even when believing that Rodolpho is Ã¢â¬Å"stealingÃ¢â¬ from him, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do this because heÃ¢â¬â¢s already losing his respect, due to his feelings for Catherine, and fears that his desires could be revealed. The audience already see that heÃ¢â¬â¢s changing from an over-protective father-figure to a jealous, bitter man who isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to give up on what he wants. When suggesting that Rodolpho had stolen from him, we see that he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t generous anymore; readers wonder if his act of generosity was genuine. Ã¢â¬Å"A View from the BridgeÃ¢â¬ ? Essay In Ã¢â¬Å"A View From The BridgeÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller I believe that Eddie is the character who changes most in the course of the play. I will show this by talking about his role in the drama, the dramatic devices and use of language by Miller as well as the background and social context of the play. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the play is the most vital one; he is by far the most important character in the play. It is, after all, his inability to deal with his emotions that triggers most of the story and the tragedy that unfolds. Throughout the play we see many changes in the character of Eddie. At the beginning of the play Eddie is a respected, hard-working man who is protective and kind towards his orphaned niece Catherine. The first scene in the play demonstrates EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s character clearly. He comes home from work and is greeted by an excited Catherine. One stage direction that immediately gives a feel for how Eddie feels about Catherine is Ã¢â¬Å"Eddie is pleased, therefore shy about itÃ¢â¬ . This shows that the simple Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, Eddie! Ã¢â¬ from Catherine is enough to make him shy, almost as if he has been reduced to a Ã¢â¬Ëschoolboy crushÃ¢â¬â¢ state of mind. Later in the scene he tells Catherine that he thinks her skirt is too short and that she is Ã¢â¬Å"walkinÃ¢â¬â¢ wavy. Ã¢â¬ He gets very protective of her, saying that she is being very provocative. When Catherine says, Ã¢â¬Å"Them guys look at all the girlsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Eddie replies, Ã¢â¬Å"You ainÃ¢â¬â¢t all the girls. Ã¢â¬ This adds to the impression that he wants to protect her and may have inappropriate feelings towards her. But by the end of the play Eddie no longer protects Catherine with all his strength; instead, he focuses solely on attacking Rudolfo and Marco because of his intense jealousy over RudolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Catherine. In spite of the advice of his lawyer Alfieri to let things run their course Eddie betrays Rudolfo and Marco and in doing so loses his reputation and goes against his own moral code. In the end Eddie has almost gone mad because his friends and family have lost all respect for him and he is vainly trying to get it back. The scene I have chosen to demonstrate how much Eddie has changed is the final one in the play. It shows Eddie almost as a different person Ã¢â¬â no longer kind and protective but vengeful and bitter. Eddie hears that Marco is on his way to confront him after being bailed out by Alfieri. He goes outside and addresses the crowd of people that has gathered because they have heard that Eddie has betrayed Marco and Rudolfo . The realization of what he has done has made Eddie go slightly mad. One stage direction says, Ã¢â¬Å"his eyes are murderous and he cracks his knuckles with a strange sort of relaxation. Ã¢â¬ This shows that Eddie has come to terms with what is happening and is facing Marco even though he knows he has greater strength than him. Throughout the play Arthur Miller uses simplistic language to demonstrate many things about Eddie. The characterÃ¢â¬â¢s vocabulary is limited and often colloquial, this shows that Eddie has had a tough upbringing and has a hard-working life-style Ã¢â¬â he is a very Ã¢â¬ËmanlyÃ¢â¬â¢ man. The play is based largely on Millers own experiences. The story of EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s betrayal of his cousins is based on a longshoreman Miller heard about during his own two years working on the docks of Brooklyn. Whilst there, he also heard about a friendÃ¢â¬â¢s dream where the friend had an attraction to his niece. Miller believed that the dream revealed a desire to have relations with the niece. Miller used his own experiences a lot when writing his plays which give them a truthful feel. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s simple direct language is not shown as a negative thing however Ã¢â¬â it demonstrates what a powerful character he is and how he is perceived by those around him. Because he is the head of the household, he does not need to ask people to listen, he simply talks to the family using direct, blunt language and they listen. He is CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian (he also has inappropriate feelings for her). This role makes him all the more important because, Catherine is the second most important character in the play. When Eddie challenges Rodolfo to a casual boxing lesson and uses the opportunity to punch him. This is EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s way of showing Rodolfo and Catherine that he has the most power in the household Ã¢â¬â but he then abuses it. The play is also an accurate projection of 1940s Red Hook, the slum where the Carbones live and the play is set. Eddie and his family are just like most families in Red Hook, they should be viewed as regular members of the wider community, even when the tragedy that occurs within the confines of their family is spilled into the community of Red Hook and becomes a public affair. In conclusion I believe that Eddie has changed the most because at the beginning of the play, he represents a good and a respectable man, but at the end, he has been reduced to the ruins of what was once an honorable man. It is EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s good values at the beginning of the play that cause us to admire him. One of these was being so averse to what the boy did in the Vinnie Bolzano story. However, through his actions in calling immigration and telling them about Rodolfo and Marco he loses the respect and sympathy of those around him. The aspects of Eddie that made him the good, strong man he was in the beginning of the play were changed by Rodolfo and CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s love for each other. By the end of Ã¢â¬ËA View From the BridgeÃ¢â¬â¢ we see that even a man as strong and reliable as Eddie can be completely transformed and distorted by the illicit love and jealousy that he feels for Catherine. A view from the Bridge Essay Eddie: Ã¢â¬Å"Listen, you been givinÃ¢â¬â¢ me the willies the way you walk down the street, I mean it. Ã¢â¬ The relationship between them is that of a father and a daughter. The tension increases in the relationship when Eddie hears about CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s new job. Eddie: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.. plumbers; theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll chew her to pieces if she donÃ¢â¬â¢t watch out. Ã¢â¬ Eddie is overprotective about Catherine especially when she has a new job. However, then he allows her to take the job. He gives Catherine some advice. Eddie: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust nobody. Ã¢â¬ He calls Catherine Ã¢â¬ËModonnaÃ¢â¬â¢ this is a religious overtoues. He worships her. If I was directing the play I would make that scene a bit intense and make Eddie feel hurt when Catherine has got a new job but Catherine and Beatrice donÃ¢â¬â¢t see it. The tension grows in the relationship when BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin, Marco and Rodolfo arrive. Eddie becomes jelous of CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Rudolfo. Rudolfo and Catherine have gone to the Parmount and they come home having enjoyedtheir evening. Eddie tells Rudolfo to go into into the house because he wants to speak to Catherine. Eddie tells Catherine that Rudolfo only likes her so that he can get a passport. Catherine disagrees with this and refuses to believe Eddie. Eddie: Ã¢â¬Å"Katie, heÃ¢â¬â¢s only bowinÃ¢â¬â¢ to his passport. Ã¢â¬ I think that Eddie is using this to come between them because I think Eddie has feelings for Catherine and he likes her. If I was the director I would bring more tension into this scene and create some kind of argument between Eddie and Rudolfo. Eddie comes home drunk and sees Rudolfo coming out of CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom. He becomes angry and upset. He tells Rudolfo to leave the house, but Catherine says no and she is the one who will be leaving the house. In that scene Eddie kisses Rudolfo to show that he is not straight(gay). Catherine: Ã¢â¬Å"I think I canÃ¢â¬â¢t stay here no more. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry, Eddie. Ã¢â¬ The relationship between Eddie and Catherine is getting worse and more tense. Catherine is very angry with EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s anti social behaviour. Catherine tells Eddie that she is going to marry Rudolfo. Eddie tries to tell her that she is too young and that this is the first guy she has met. Eddie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want Catherine to go ahead with the marriage. Ã¢â¬Å"But you never knew no other fella, Katie! How could you make up your mind? Ã¢â¬ If I were to direct this play, I would put more action into this scene and a little argument about the wedding. The final relationship which I am going to explore is the one between Catherine and Beatrice. Beatrice loves Eddie and wants to respect Eddie, but Catherine comes in her way. Beatrice understands that Catherine is growing up and she is not a baby, but Eddie is being over protective of Catherine. Beatrice becomes more certain that Eddie is heading towards disaster. Eddie: Ã¢â¬Å"Beatrice, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s a baby, how is she gonna know what she likes? Ã¢â¬ Beatrice: Ã¢â¬Å"Well, you kept her ababy, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t let her go out. Ã¢â¬ Beatrice tries to reason with Eddie. She tries to tell him that heÃ¢â¬â¢s being selfish. Catherine try to affect Eddie. Catherine is confused and innocent throughout the play. If I was directing this scene I would create a havoc between Beatrice and Eddie and their relationship would break up. I think that Beatrice is jelous of Catherine but she is doing the right thing. She tries to push the girl out to work so that she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come into the relationship between her and Eddie. Beatrice is aware that Eddie some sexual desire for Catherine but she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t blame Catherine for this. She tries to tell Catherine to move on with her life and she does this by standing up for her when she found her first job and when she is going out with Rodolfo. Catherine doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t encourage Eddie purposely. She is not deceptive. Catherine takes BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s advice to move on with her life. Beatrice: Ã¢â¬Å"You still walk around in front of him in your slip. Ã¢â¬ Beatrice: Ã¢â¬Å"well you canÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. Ã¢â¬ Beatrice tells Catherine that she is not a baby and she shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t walk around in her slip when Eddie is shaving his underwear. She tells her to go on and marry Rodolfo. Beatrice is doing the right, but inside I think she feels jelous of Catherine. Beatrice was happy when Catherine announced her engagement. Beatrice is ready to attend the wedding but Eddie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to. Catherine: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m gonna get married, Eddie. So if you wanna come, the wedding be on Saturday. Ã¢â¬ I would direct this be instructing Beatrice to shout at Catherine, teaching her to get on with her life. I would tell Catherine to actas if she is confused why Beatrice is shouting at her. In conclusion, I think Arthur Miller has done well to show the relationships between the characters. He has used different types of techniques and he has been succesful in doing this. Relationships are a major factor in the play because actions come from the characters and their prejudice attitudes etc. Miller shows conflicts, love and arguments through characters. I think the main point of the story is it shows if relationships donÃ¢â¬â¢t work, it leads to death and conflict. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section. A view from the bridge Essay There are many emotions in the play: Love, hatred, jealousy, and anger. Write about one and how it is presented in the play. I have chosen to look at the emotion love and the part it plays in affecting the storyline. In Ã¢â¬ËA View From the BridgeÃ¢â¬â¢ by Arthur Miller most of the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions are fuelled by love. Love drives all the other main emotions in the play. However there are question marks over both the central loving relationships, that of Eddie and CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s and Eddie and BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Eddie is that of a daughter for her father as she calls him Ã¢â¬Ëthe sweetest guyÃ¢â¬â¢. She has a doting daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. Catherine cares for Eddie and goes out of her way to please him Ã¢â¬ËWhat do you want me to do? Ã¢â¬Ë she asks him upset when he disapproves of her skirt. She wants very much to please him. But Eddie is very hard to please, as he is far too overprotective of her. CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s falls in love with an immigrant who stays with the family Ã¢â¬ËI love you RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢ she tells him. Catherine has never been in a serious relationship before but is deeply in love with Rodolfo who in turn loves her. This relationship is normal for people of their age and marriage is quite a natural step for two people in love. Marco is an immigrant who has come to America as his family are starving and as he explains his wife Ã¢â¬Ëfeeds them from her own mouthÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning they are starving. MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s love has forced him to leave his wife and three children to work in America to make money to feed them. This is a very strong gesture as he plans not to see his family again for Ã¢â¬Ëfour, five, six years maybeÃ¢â¬â¢. This relationship highlights the extreme measures people are driven to because of love. Marco loves his family to the point where he would do anything for them. This shows that in this play love is a real passion that prompts other behaviour. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Catherine seemed at the beginning of the play just to be the love of a concerned father figure, Ã¢â¬ËI think itÃ¢â¬â¢s too short ainÃ¢â¬â¢t it? Ã¢â¬Ë he says worrying about the length of CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s skirt. Eddie is very over protective of Catherine and treats her as if she is still his little girl, which could be damaging to her development in this stage of life as Beatrice points out Ã¢â¬ËLook, you gotta get used to it, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s no baby no moreÃ¢â¬â¢. It is time for Eddie to let go but he canÃ¢â¬â¢t. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive attitude towards Catherine seems strange to everyone except Eddie Ã¢â¬ËShe canÃ¢â¬â¢t marry you, can she? Ã¢â¬Ë Alfieri says trying to explain how others might see his behaviour. To everyone else Eddie seems to be perversely in love with Catherine and wants her for himself. I believe this is not the case, I believe Eddie has become used to CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s love for him that he cannot bear to see her adorning her affection on anyone else. The stage direction Ã¢â¬Ëwith a sense of her childhood, her babyhood and the yearsÃ¢â¬â¢ describes the great sense of loss Eddie feels as he has cared and loved her all her life. Beatrice remains faithful to Eddie throughout although she is frustrated, Ã¢â¬ËWhen am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie? Ã¢â¬Ë she tells him, desperate from him to forget about Catherine and go back to caring for her. BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Eddie is one of the strongest in the play, she wants desperately for Eddie to pay her the attention she deserves as a loving wife. Eddies obsessive behaviour towards Catherine puts great strain on his marriage Ã¢â¬ËI want my respectÃ¢â¬â¢ he says when Beatrice tries to confront him, Eddie is angry and shouts at her for complaining about him being so strict with Catherine. Beatrice is struggling to keep her marriage intact, but she cannot understand the love Eddie feels towards Catherine. I believe Eddie loves his wife dearly but his love for Catherine takes priority when Rodolfo comes on the scene, which leads him to mistreat Beatrice. I cannot help feeling sorry for her as she is forced into a situation that was not her doing. It seems her love for Eddie is unrequited. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s hatred for Rodolfo is fuelled by his jealousy for the love and attention Catherine bestows upon him, Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢m telling ya the guy ainÃ¢â¬â¢t rightÃ¢â¬â¢ he says trying to justify his hatred. Nobody believes EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s comments about Rodolfo and everyone but Eddie can see through to his jealousy. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t right for a man of EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s age to be obsessed with his young niece, but nobody understands the depth and passion of EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s love, which drives him to keep Catherine at any cost. EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s obsessive love compels him to see Mr Alfieri, family friend and lawyer Ã¢â¬ËHe ainÃ¢â¬â¢t right Mr AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢ Eddie pleads, but it is obvious he has no jurisdiction within he law. The fact Eddie has gone to see Alfieri shows the power of his love towards Catherine and his desperation to have her for himself. Love is the main driving force behind all the characters actions, Ã¢â¬Ëthe truth is not as bad as blood EddieÃ¢â¬â¢ Beatrice tells him trying to quell his anger and hatred. Beatrice believes that love is not a worthy enough cause for the use of violence. It is EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s deep love that drives him to use all force necessary to have what he believes to be his Catherine. This unfaltering love to the bitter end is misunderstood by Marco Ã¢â¬ËHe degraded my brother. My blood. Ã¢â¬Ë Marco says; he cannot see why Eddie turned him and Rodolfo into the police. But it is obvious to the reader that it was EddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ love that compelled his actions and not his hatred for Marco and his brother. EddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ love finally leads him to his death Ã¢â¬ËYou lied about me MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢ Eddie cries before lunging at him. This is Eddies last desperate attempt to win back his dignity. EddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ love has driven him to a point where he has no other option but to follow his feelings to the end. The fate of Eddie Carbone is a tragic one as his obsessive feelings towards Catherine took control of him and his actions that followed he could not help. I believe the story is a testament to the power of love and how once it has infected someone in a certain way; they are powerless to stop it. Emlyn Roberts Pluto10X Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section. A View from the Bridge Essay Pride plays a great role in the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A View from the BridgeÃ¢â¬ . The biggest victim of pride is Eddie, who loses both his pride and respect throughout the play. And this gradual loss heavily affects the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors. However pride does not seem to be the only factor that dictates the progress of the play. In the beginning of the play, Eddie is full of pride. He is respected by both Marco and Rodolfo as well as the community. The quote, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to tell you now Eddie Ã¢â¬â when you say go, we will go,Ã¢â¬ shows that Marco and Rodolfo respect Eddie. The quote in other words means that Marco and Rodolfo will be doing whatever Eddie tells them to do. The fact that this is MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s first significant line in the play shows how important Marco thinks of Eddie. Also the hyphen in the middle of the sentence gives effect, which emphasizes the message Marco is trying to send to Eddie. The pride Marco and Rodolfo give Eddie in the family allows Eddie to lower his guard and gives him a chance to respect Marco as well. This perspective can be seen from the following line. Eddie says, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re welcome, Marco, we got plenty of room here. Ã¢â¬ He addresses Marco, which shows that Eddie is in favor of him. Then the second part of the line, Ã¢â¬Å"we got plenty of room here. Ã¢â¬ , not only shows the Eddie is welcoming Marco, but it also shows that Eddie has given Marco his respect. A Ã¢â¬Å"RoomÃ¢â¬ in their house symbolizes respect. At first, Eddie and Marco both have each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s trust and respect, giving them both pride which brings the two to a peaceful relationship. Later as the play progresses Eddie begins to lose his pride. Marco says, Ã¢â¬Å"Here. (the chair raised like a weapon over EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s head Ã¢â¬â and he transforms what might appear like a glare of warning into a smile of triumph)Ã¢â¬ The simplicity of the sentence emphasizes MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of respect for Eddie. The stage direction, Ã¢â¬Å"Over EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s headÃ¢â¬ also symbolizes how Marco has overcome Eddie. Also the Ã¢â¬Å"glare of warningÃ¢â¬ shows that Marco no longer thinks of Eddie as someone he should respect. The story continues as Eddie loses his pride. Pride is very important to Eddie. He says Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah Marco! Eddie Carbone. Eddie Carbone. Eddie Carbone. Ã¢â¬ His name symbolizes his pride and the repetition of it shows the importance of his name in EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. Also he does not just say his first name but also his last name, which also emphasizes his name Ã¢â¬â his pride. The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction is another event that comes from pride. Ã¢â¬Å"(Lipari and wife exitsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Louis barely turns, then walks off the stage and exits down right with Mike. )Ã¢â¬ is a stage direction that shows the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to what Eddie had done to Marco and Rodolfo. Lipari and his wife, Louis, and Mike represent the community. The fact that they have Ã¢â¬Å"walked offÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"exitedÃ¢â¬ indicates that the whole community has turned their backs on Eddie. From there, we can see that Eddie has lost his pride in his community as well as his family. Although pride is a main factor behind the progression of the play, loyalty and family relationships, also play a very important role. Family relationships play a very important role. This could be seen from BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s line, Ã¢â¬Å"Eddie, listen to me. Who could give you your name? Listen to me, I love you, IÃ¢â¬â¢m talking to you. I love you. Ã¢â¬ The short sentences make the sentence feel real and have a real impact, as if Beatrice is really trying to talk to Eddie. Furthermore, the repetition of the phrases, Ã¢â¬Å"listen to meÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ emphasizes how much Beatrice really cares about Eddie. Pride and family relationships play a huge rule in the progression of the play. A View from the Bridge Essay Pride plays a great role in the play, Ã¢â¬Å"A View from the BridgeÃ¢â¬ . The biggest victim of pride is Eddie, who loses both his pride and respect throughout the play. And this gradual loss heavily affects the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors. However pride does not seem to be the only factor that dictates the progress of the play. In the beginning of the play, Eddie is full of pride. He is respected by both Marco and Rodolfo as well as the community. The quote, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to tell you now Eddie Ã¢â¬â when you say go, we will go,Ã¢â¬ shows that Marco and Rodolfo respect Eddie. The quote in other words means that Marco and Rodolfo will be doing whatever Eddie tells them to do. The fact that this is MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s first significant line in the play shows how important Marco thinks of Eddie. Also the hyphen in the middle of the sentence gives effect, which emphasizes the message Marco is trying to send to Eddie. The pride Marco and Rodolfo give Eddie in the family allows Eddie to lower his guard and gives him a chance to respect Marco as well. This perspective can be seen from the following line. Eddie says, Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re welcome, Marco, we got plenty of room here. Ã¢â¬ He addresses Marco, which shows that Eddie is in favor of him. Then the second part of the line, Ã¢â¬Å"we got plenty of room here. Ã¢â¬ , not only shows the Eddie is welcoming Marco, but it also shows that Eddie has given Marco his respect. A Ã¢â¬Å"RoomÃ¢â¬ in their house symbolizes respect. At first, Eddie and Marco both have each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s trust and respect, giving them both pride which brings the two to a peaceful relationship. Later as the play progresses Eddie begins to lose his pride. Marco says, Ã¢â¬Å"Here. (the chair raised like a weapon over EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s head Ã¢â¬â and he transforms what might appear like a glare of warning into a smile of triumph)Ã¢â¬ The simplicity of the sentence emphasizes MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of respect for Eddie. The stage direction, Ã¢â¬Å"Over EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s headÃ¢â¬ also symbolizes how Marco has overcome Eddie. Also the Ã¢â¬Å"glare of warningÃ¢â¬ shows that Marco no longer thinks of Eddie as someone he should respect. The story continues as Eddie loses his pride. Pride is very important to Eddie. He says Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah Marco! Eddie Carbone. Eddie Carbone. Eddie Carbone. Ã¢â¬ His name symbolizes his pride and the repetition of it shows the importance of his name in EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. Also he does not just say his first name but also his last name, which also emphasizes his name Ã¢â¬â his pride. The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction is another event that comes from pride. (Lipari and wife exitsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Louis barely turns, then walks off the stage and exits down right with Mike. )Ã¢â¬ is a stage direction that shows the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to what Eddie had done to Marco and Rodolfo. Lipari and his wife, Louis, and Mike represent the community. The fact that they have Ã¢â¬Å"walked offÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"exitedÃ¢â¬ indicates that the whole community has turned their backs on Eddie. From there, we can see that Eddie has lost his pride in his community as well as his family. Although pride is a main factor behind the progression of the play, loyalty and family relationships, also play a very important role. Family relationships play a very important role. This could be seen from BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s line, Ã¢â¬Å"Eddie, listen to me. Who could give you your name? Listen to me, I love you, IÃ¢â¬â¢m talking to you. I love you. Ã¢â¬ The short sentences make the sentence feel real and have a real impact, as if Beatrice is really trying to talk to Eddie. Furthermore, the repetition of the phrases, Ã¢â¬Å"listen to meÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"I love youÃ¢â¬ emphasizes how much Beatrice really cares about Eddie. Pride and family relationships play a huge rule in the progression of the play. A view from the bridge Essay Explain how act one of A View from the Bridge is effective in terms of dramatic quality and how an audience might respond to the play. This essay is about act 1 of A View from the Bridge which was written by Arthur Miller. A View From The Bridge is a play, so I will be focussing on the dramatic input it had on the audience. People in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, when the play was first performed, would react differently to an audience would now. People in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s lived under a very strict moral code, people were expected to live like a stereotypical American citizen would have. The code was much stricter than the one that exists today. This is shown by Ã¢â¬Å"In your town you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t just drag off some girl without permissionÃ¢â¬ ¦ it ainÃ¢â¬â¢t that much different here.Ã¢â¬ In Italy there was no employment, which meant there was no money to spend even on basic needs like food and water, Marco explains how his 3 children Ã¢â¬Å"eat the sunshineÃ¢â¬ and because of this many Italians immigrated to America, so that they could live the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican DreamÃ¢â¬â¢, where people were able to find employment. Women were made to live under moral values and were expected to be homemakers. Beatrice is a very good example of this, Ã¢â¬ËI was gonna wash the wallsÃ¢â¬â¢, men, on the other hand were expected to be the providers, to get money and keep the family stable. They were expected to behave like men, Ã¢â¬Å"Come on Rodolfo, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll show you a couple of passesÃ¢â¬ ¦ now watch out here I come, Danish!Ã¢â¬ Working class men had specific views on sexuality; this is a reason why Eddie and Rodolfo are constantly fighting. Eddie suspects Rodolfo as being a homosexual, because Rodolfo makes dresses, sings and dances, which is not a way a man should be behaving, and because of this behaviour, he calls Rodolfo Ã¢â¬Å"A weirdÃ¢â¬ and tells Alfeiri, Ã¢â¬Å"the guy ainÃ¢â¬â¢t right,Ã¢â¬ Eddie also worries how the other men view him, Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬â¢re calling him a canary.Ã¢â¬ The contrast to how they view the more conventional Marco, Ã¢â¬Å"A regular slaveÃ¢â¬ creates a l ot of tension and makes Eddie very anxious. Eddie is the main character of the play, and it is his tragedy that we watch unfold. Eddie works on the docks because he is a longshoreman. He is presented as an ordinary, hardworking provider. Ã¢â¬Å"He was as good as a man as he had to be in a life that was hard and evenÃ¢â¬ ¦ he brought home his pay and he lived.Ã¢â¬ However Alfieri then goes on to say Ã¢â¬Å"Eddie Carbone had never expected to have a destiny. A man works, raises his family, goes bowling, eats, gets old and then dies.Ã¢â¬ This tells the audience that Eddie is more than meets the eye. Eddie is an Italian-American who is lacking in education, which is portrayed in his speech, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll treat yizÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"you gotta sit down sometimesÃ¢â¬ . His grammar is often inaccurate Ã¢â¬Å"whynÃ¢â¬â¢t you run down.Ã¢â¬ Eddie is important to the play because he shows what happens when you betray your family and how it affects him emotionally and physically. If Eddie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist the family could not survive, as he holds the family together, however Eddie could not survive with his family, which is why the play is so tragic. Eddie relates to the other characters by being something they each need, for Instance he sees himself as a man, a husband, an uncle and a member of a close-knit Italian community. However the audience sees a strong silent type in Eddie, they can see what is going on in Eddies head, they can see he is trying to protect Catherine from other people and himself, Ã¢â¬Å"I guess I just never figured on one thingÃ¢â¬ ¦ that you would ever grow up.Ã¢â¬ The audience can see Eddie try and rationalise his feelings for Catherine and can see how jealous Eddie is when Catherine is going out with Rodolfo, Ã¢â¬Å"He takes and puts his filthy hands on her like a goddam thief!Ã¢â¬ EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings for Catherine also impacts on the relationship he has with Beatrice, Ã¢â¬Å"when am I going to be a wife again?Ã¢â¬ Eddie makes act one dramatic with all the intensity of everything that is going on around him, eg his feelings for Catherine, relationship problems with Beatrice and the hatred of Rodolfo, which leads to Eddie making negative comments, which makes Catherine and Beatrice anxious, as they can see his anger building up. He also starts to criticise Catherine, for example Ã¢â¬Å"what the high heels for Garbo?Ã¢â¬ . Even though Marco has spoken very little, it is made clear that he is angry at Eddie for disrespecting his brother, so Marco challenges Eddie in lifting a chair above his head, which Marco does successfully but Eddie is unable to do, this gesture warns Eddie, its as if he is saying, if you mess with Rodolfo you mess with me. It also shows how strong Marco is compared to Eddie, which is important as it relates to the end scene. Catherine and Beatrice are important to the play because they are Eddies family, if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t, Beatrice would not have been able to build up so much tension about not being a wife, and neither would CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s falling in love with Rodolfo. This tells us that all the characters contributed something to cause EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Both Beatrice and Catherine are very likeable characters; Catherine acts like a little girl, even though she is 17. She treats Eddie like her father and she is very optimistic in every situation. Beatrice is a much more stable and mature character. She can see what to do in every situation. Being an Italian-American, means that her grammar is often inaccurate. Beatrice is very much based at home and her speech is usually connected with the world, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t even have nothing to eat for themÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬â¢re you gotÃ¢â¬ . Whereas Catherine, has had more education than Beatrice, but has still grown up in the Italian-American community, which means she still uses a lot of slang and is lively in her speech, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m the best student, he says, and if I want, I should take the jobÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"oh sure, IÃ¢â¬â¢m crazy for paper dollÃ¢â¬ . However, Beatrice and Catherine are different, Ã¢â¬Å"oh Beatrice what should I do?Ã¢â¬ where young Catherine is uncertain, Beatrice is mature and has a clear view of matters. The audience would feel sorry for them because they are trying to have normal lives, but Eddie brought so much tension, that it affects the whole family. Catherine doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why Eddie was so upset with Rodolfo, Ã¢â¬Å"why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you like him Eddie?Ã¢â¬ Beatrice is troubled because she notices that Eddie has feelings for Catherine, but really wants to be EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Ã¢â¬Å"You want something else Eddie! But you can never have her!Ã¢â¬ The audience feels sorry for Beatrice after learning that she knows about EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. Catherine and Beatrice cause a lot of tension, with Catherine desperately wanting to see Rodolfo, but Eddie is reluctant to let her, and Catherine wanting to get a job and to go out more. Beatrice is concerned about her relationship, and the way Catherine acts around Eddie, which leads her to say that she needs to grow up now that she is older. Also EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to Catherine Ã¢â¬Å"now donÃ¢â¬â¢t aggravate me, Katie, you are walking wavyÃ¢â¬ these are the first signs of trouble. Furthermore, Eddie is not entirely happy with BeatriceÃ¢â¬â¢s cousins coming to stay with them. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up on the floor with you, and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be in our bedÃ¢â¬ , Eddie expects the cousins to be grateful. Eddie then gets even angrier when Rodolfo flirts with Catherine, which is shown to the audience by stage direction Ã¢â¬â he has been unconsciously twisting the newspaper into a tight roll. Marco and Rodolfo are brothers who come from Italy. Their life in Italy was terrible; Rodolfo had no other family or any money, he was unemployed and could not get a job. Marco has a wife and 3 children. He also had no money because of unemployment, and therefore, both brothers immigrated to America, where they would stay with the CarboneÃ¢â¬â¢s. Marco and Rodolfo became longshoremen, and received reasonable pay, of which Marco sent most of it to his family in Italy, and continued to live in America. RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s second language is English; this becomes more obvious when he gets flustered or excited. He is enthusiastic and lively in his speech, which reflects his character. Ã¢â¬Å"Me? Yes, foreverÃ¢â¬ ¦ I want to go back to Italy when I am rich, and I will buy a motorcycleÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Quickly and with a great noiseÃ¢â¬ . Marco lacks education. English is his second language too, Ã¢â¬Å"No, but she understand everythingÃ¢â¬ . He is described as Ã¢â¬Å"A square built peasantÃ¢â¬ . He is a man of few words, but when Marco is angry, his speech becomes disjointed. Ã¢â¬Å"I work to come here misterÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"that one!Ã¢â¬ he speaks very poor English, but still it shows MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s contempt for Eddie. Marco is not like Rodolfo, he is not lively but very quiet, and does what he is told. He behaves like a Ã¢â¬ËproperÃ¢â¬â¢ man. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a regular slaveÃ¢â¬ . Because of RodolfoÃ¢â¬â¢s liking for singing and dressmaking, Eddie reacts harshly to him. For example, Eddie humiliates Rodolfo in front of Catherine, Ã¢â¬ËEddie pins his arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him, Ã¢â¬Å"You see?Ã¢â¬ The audience would have also suspected Rodolfo of being a homosexual and would have despised him and discouraged his behaviour. The conflict between Eddie, Marco and Rodolfo at the end of act one is made very dramatic for the audience. This is cleverly done by the characters and their stage directions, for instance, he transforms what might appear like a glare of warning, into a smile of triumph. This creates a lot of energy from all of the three men, which puts a lot of pressure on Eddie. Alfieri is a lawyer. He is well educated and uses higher register than the other characters, Ã¢â¬Å"I confess that something perversely pure calls to me from his memory.Ã¢â¬ He is also Ã¢â¬ËchattyÃ¢â¬â¢ when he addresses the audience: Ã¢â¬Å"you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have known it, but something amusing has just happened.Ã¢â¬ He functions like a Greek chorus; he explains and sometimes warns the audience about the action, he might tell you what happens next. Moreover, he has a dramatic function as a narrator, a commentator and a character that interacts with others. Alfieri connects the play together. He also introduces the main themes, for example he suggests to the audience that the play they are going to watch is not going to be happy. Ã¢â¬Å"Watch its bloody courseÃ¢â¬ . He makes the audience realise that the play is a tragedy and Eddie can not escape his destiny. He also introduces the main comments to the audience, Ã¢â¬Å"settle for halfÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The law is not a friendly idea Ã¢â¬ which means he is saying make sure you do anything for your family, which relates to what Eddie talks about when he is telling the story of Vinny Bolzano. He explains that Vinny had an uncle, who was staying with him. However his uncle was an illegal immigrant. So the boy phoned immigration and the uncle was taken back to his country. The boy was never seen again because he was so ashamed of what he had done. His friends and family would not speak to him again. Vinny Bolzano symbolises the loyalty amongst the Italian-American community and the consequence of breaking that trust. In a similar way: the LipariÃ¢â¬â¢s, Louis and mike do the same thing. They were close friends of Eddie in the beginning of the play, Ã¢â¬Å"see ya LouisÃ¢â¬ , who turn against Eddie once he betrays his family: Ã¢â¬Ëthe crowd has turned to Eddie.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËLouis barely turns then walks off, Eddie calls after Louis and MikeÃ¢â¬â¢. In the play he also advises Eddie not to phone immigration, and warns him of the consequences, Ã¢â¬Å"You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have a friend in the world Eddie!Ã¢â¬ This will make the audience think either; that the advice is not appropriate because he is a lawyer. He is connected to the law, and so should make sure Eddie goes by the law. Or the audience might agree with the advice, as they know how important it is that you do anything for your family. .. this scene makes the audience involved by making use their judgement. Lighting is used throughout to make AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance more dramatic, Ã¢â¬Ëlights rise on AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëlights fade on AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢. Arthur Miller uses dramatic irony. For example, when the Immigration Officers appear outside the CarboneÃ¢â¬â¢s apartment just as Catherine is arguing with Eddie over where Marco and Rodolfo are going to stay if Eddie throws them out of the building. We know their argument is pointless because the officers are about to pounce. The effect of dramatic irony is to involve us in the action, to make us feel implicated, almost as if we are ourselves characters in the play. Miller is very explicit with his stage directions. He describes in detail how he wants the set to appear and exactly how characters are to say each line, i.e. Ã¢â¬ËWith deep alarmÃ¢â¬â¢. Miller also uses stage directions to hint that there is a sexual attraction between Eddie and Catherine Ã¢â¬Å"He looks at [Catherine] like a lost boyÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, the actions towards Rodolfo show the audience that Catherine is slipping away from Eddie, Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a rat! He belongs in the sewer!Ã¢â¬ The dramatic devices, techniques and stage craft make the play very dramatic. The skilful use of these, build up intensity between the characters, which in turn causes hatred and jealousy. It shows us today how fortunate we are compared to the lives back then; as women and men were not allowed to be different, and had to live by strict moral values. This also shows us how bad some peoples lives were in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and illustrates how bad life was in Italy. Today, the audience would act differently; this is because it is now acceptable to be unique and to be homosexual, nowadays people wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be so judgemental. I think the play is good because it so emotive. It highlights how bad life can be, and even when you are tempted not to, to still look after your family, and do everything you can for them, as betrayal, (a major theme in the play),has been proved to sometimes have fatal consequences. Ã¢â¬Å"A View from the BridgeÃ¢â¬ Essay There are a few interpretations of what the title could mean: an overview, a bridge between characters, CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s bridge between girl and woman, a bridge between two worlds (America and Italy) and EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s change of character. Alfieri is an outsider, his view is Ã¢â¬Ëfrom the bridgeÃ¢â¬â¢; he comments on EddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ progress as a storyteller, Ã¢â¬Å"I could have finished the whole story that afternoonÃ¢â¬ ¦I could see every step coming.Ã¢â¬ (p50) This is what Alfieri says after Eddie comes to see him. He is the narrator and is quite similar to the chorus in a Greek Tragedy. Characters also make Ã¢â¬ËbridgesÃ¢â¬â¢ or connections between other characters. For example, throughout the first act we see that Beatrice is the bridge between Catherine and Eddie and she still is on page 80 when she insists that Eddie attend the wedding when Catherine does not care. Also, Eddie dislikes Rodolpho and Catherine bridges that gap and tries to persuade Eddie to her point of view, Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢re you got against him?Ã¢â¬ ¦He only blesses you.Ã¢â¬ (40) CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s growing up is a bridge as well: Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a babyÃ¢â¬ ¦Beatrice says to be a woman,Ã¢â¬ (62) In this scene she also asks Rodolpho to teach her and they venture towards the bedroom, she emerges to speak to Eddie adjusting her dress. An innocence of virginity is seen. The audience also sees a bridge in CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s job (18), with her growing up and changing from the rough area of the docks to something more Ã¢â¬Ëup marketÃ¢â¬â¢. The title could also mean bridging the gap between two cultures, America and Italy. The Italian way of life is very much based on unwritten rules ofÃ honour and trust, the American justice system is written in stone, Ã¢â¬Å"MARCO:Ã¢â¬ ¦All the law is not in a book. ALFIERI: Yes. In a book. There is no other law.Ã¢â¬ (78) Eddie lived an Italian/American way of life, Alfieri says in the first scene that the law was often broken for Ã¢â¬ËjusticeÃ¢â¬â¢ (12); Eddie does not want this for Catherine, he wants her to have The American Dream Ã¢â¬â going from poor slums to rich and successful in one generation. The American culture of Brooklyn generates from the dirty docks. The bad living conditions and poor way of life do not seem fit for Catherine and Eddie wants to change that. Eddie and his longshoremen friends are very hard in there own way, they have very good intents, but their way of going about it shows very little awareness of the outside world. The troubles of the whole play originated from the docks and EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s generosity in taking the Italians in to stay. This is illegal and he is bringing back the culture that Alfieri introduces as having changed for the better, Ã¢â¬Å"Now we settle for half [the law] and I like it better.Ã¢â¬ (12) Eddie at the start of the play is very hard-working and protective; he wants Catherine to have the American Dream that he never had; he is generous Ã¢â¬â he lets the cousins come to stay, caring and sensitive; he has the Italian values of loyalty and the family as one being. This changes through the play. The audience sees his change of character in such things as the threat from Rodolpho and his brother. On page 27 Eddie disagrees with MarcoÃ¢â¬â¢s offer that Ã¢â¬Å"If you say Ã¢â¬ËgoÃ¢â¬â¢, we go.Ã¢â¬ On page 48 Eddie refuses AlfieriÃ¢â¬â¢s idea that the only way to rid himself of the threat of Rodolpho is to report them: Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Jesus no, I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do nothinÃ¢â¬â¢ like thatÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ On page 67 he finally rings Immigration to report his cousins, a change of attitude completely. This change is the Ã¢â¬ËbridgeÃ¢â¬â¢ in EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s story.