понеділок, 30 вересня 2019 р.
Have you ever thought how much someone can grow and learn through the experiences? There are many factors in how people can change their personality; their way of thinking and every day grow more as a person. Life is too complex to understand, it is better to live and enjoy each day to the fullest that it is where you learns more. In my opinion, I believe in what my mother says, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone must go through their own experiences and learn from their own mistakesÃ¢â¬ . I personally have changed a lot as a person in the past two years by different life experience like my graduation in college, starting a new job and moving to another country.My first impact when I understood that my life was changing and I had to go through new roads was my graduation day. I was with my toga and cap in a huge classroom with more than a hundred students, all seated waiting for our bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree. Upon hearing my name and having to climb onto the stage to receive my degree was the moment w hen I realized that I was no longer a child and I became a woman with a degree from preschool teacher. The shock of knowing that my life was going to start to be different and I will start a new life as an adult and with a real job frame my life.The jump from being a student to becoming a professional is awesome, I am very proud of my achievements but on the other hand, I went into a panic at not knowing what was coming next. I think that in that moment was a huge change in my life that made me mature tremendously. After I understand that my life had changed, I started my adventure of living the life that I always dreamed, to be a teacher. The time of being a head teacher had arrived. During my two years of working I was a head teacher of Nursery.The experience I had during those two years was amazing; it's incredible how children transmit you peace, happiness and that innocence that captures the heart of everyone. However, some of my biggest challenges during my years of work were dealing with parents. For example, in my first year of teaching one of my students father ordered an appointment with the director and me to see if I met his expectations as a teacher of his daughter. At first, I will not deny, I felt insulted because how could a parent knowing that Ã¢â¬Å"El JeffersonÃ¢â¬ is one of the best schools in Caracas and he wanted to see if her daughter's teacher was professionalÃ¢â¬ . That experience made me grow and understand each situation and fear that parents maybe can feel having to leave their children in a school when they have only 3 years old. At the end of the meeting the father apologized to me and congratulated me of my professionalism and the way that I took the meeting. I felt proud of myself and I gave him what he needs confidence and security. Each experience has made me grow in different ways and I really appreciate. Likewise, after having completed my two years of work experience in which I enjoy to the fullest.I started to go th rough some of the biggest changes in my life, moving to a new country. One of my life goals is to do a master of Special Education, so I decided to do this master in New York City. From the moment I stepped on the United States I realized that my life was changing 360 degrees. I was leaving my family, my friends, my life in Venezuela and I was faced with something new and different: different language, different culture, new friends, new place to live, etc. I can say this has been one of the strongest changes in my life that made e grow without anesthesia in too little time. Today I live alone, I cook, I do my laundry and I managed all my expenses. This is the first time that I am living alone and having my independence. I can totally say this is a unique and incredible experience. This opportunity that my parents are offering me has helped me to understand how difficult could be the life and if you dream for something you have to fight for it. For example, when I was at school or in college my mother was always reminding me to study or whatever, does not mean that I did not, but it is a typical habit of mothers.Now that I am here studying to start a master in NYC, all the responsibility of homework, studies, etc. it is totally on me. For anyone, this kind of life experience makes us grow up enormously and I appreciate every day in life than my parents could give me, because that is being changed me more and more as a person. In conclusion, it is difficult to write on paper all those experiences, which I have gone through and have changed me as a person. Each day that passes everyone live things that mark us forever, sometimes they are more noticeable than others. As my grandmother Ã¢â¬Å"People never stop learning no matter how old they areÃ¢â¬ .
неділя, 29 вересня 2019 р.
Grade Level(s)| K-3| When? | Literary Focus| Before| Fluency| During| Comprehension| After| Vocabulary| | Writing| | Oral Language| Q. A. R. (Question-Answer-Relationships) Question-Answer Relationships, or QAR, is a reading comprehension strategy developed to aid in the approach that students take when reading texts and answering questions about that text. Students learn to categorize types of questions which in turn help them know where to find information. It encourages students to be active, strategic readers of texts. QARÃ outlinesÃ where information can be found Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"In my Head. It then breaks down the actual question-answer relationships into four types: Right There, Think and Search, Author and Me, and On My Own. (Fisher, D. , Brozo, W. G. , Frey, N. , & Ivey, G, 2011, pg. 81) STEP-BY-STEP and EXAMPLE Chosen text: Frog and Toad Together, by Arnold Lobel 1. Hook/EngagementÃ¢â¬âBegin by reviewing what students have already learned about how to ask questions as a way to understand the meaning of texts. For example using this reading asks them to talk about the kinds of questions they can ask before, during, and after reading. Next, introduce the idea that there are two kinds of questions you can ask about texts.Explain to students that an Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ question is a question that students can find the answer to by looking in the book that they are reading. An Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ question is a question that requires students to think about what their own knowledge is to answer the question. Review a book that you have recently read aloud with students. Write the example below on a piece of chart paper or on the blackboard. Choose a few Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ questions about the book that obviously belong to one category or the other, and have students tell you in which column to write the question.When you give students a literal question, have them show you where they fo und the answer in the book. When you ask them an Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ question, go through the book with them and show them that they couldn't find the answer in the book. Have them give answers to the Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ questions and explain how they answered them ( thinking about what they have learned that is not in the book). Here are some examples of the two types: Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ questions| Ã¢â¬Å"In my HeadÃ¢â¬ questions| What is the title of the book? What is the author's name? How long is the book? | Do I like the title? Have I read any other books by this author?How long will it take me to read this book? | Explain that they are going to learn more and ask these types of questions about a new book you are going to read together. 2. Measurable ObjectivesÃ¢â¬âExplain that you are going to read the first three chapters of Frog and Toad Together aloud to them, and they are going to help you make a list of Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"In My Hea dÃ¢â¬ questions. Then, they are going to help you answer the questions and see how these types of questions will help them to understand the story. 3. Focused InstructionÃ¢â¬âReview with students the four types of questions explained in the QAR Strategy.Explain that there are two types of Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ questions and two types of Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ questions. Draw a copy of the QAR table on chart paper or on the blackboard or use an overhead projector. The table should look something like this: Ã¢â¬Å"In the TextÃ¢â¬ questions| Ã¢â¬Å"In My HeadÃ¢â¬ questions| Right There| Think and Search| Author and Me| On my Own| Read the first chapter, Ã¢â¬Å"A List,Ã¢â¬ from Frog and Toad Together aloud to students. Next, write the questions listed below under the Ã¢â¬Å"Right ThereÃ¢â¬ heading. Read the questions aloud, look through the chapter, show the students where you found the answer, and then think aloud the answer. . Right There i. What is the first t hing Toad writes on his list? Ã¢â¬Å"When I turn to page 4, I see that the first thing Toad writes on his list is Ã¢â¬ËWake up. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ii. Who is the friend Toad goes to see? Ã¢â¬Å"When I turn to page 9, I see that Toad goes to see Frog. Ã¢â¬ Next, write these questions under the Ã¢â¬Å"Think and SearchÃ¢â¬ heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. b. Think and Search iii. What caused Toad to forget what was on his list? Ã¢â¬Å"I read that Toad's list blew away and Frog did not catch it, so that is why Toad couldn't remember what was on his list. iv. How did Toad finally remember what was the last thing on his list was? Ã¢â¬Å"Frog reminded Toad that it was getting dark and they should be going to sleep Ã¢â¬â the last thing on Toad's list. Ã¢â¬ Next, write these questions under the Ã¢â¬Å"Author and MeÃ¢â¬ heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. c. Author and Me v. What do you think of Toad's list? Ã¢â¬ Å"I think that writing a list of things to do is a good idea. But, Toad could have left off some things, like waking up or getting dressed, because he doesn't need to be reminded to do that. Ã¢â¬ vi.Did you agree with the reason Toad gives for not chasing after his list? Ã¢â¬Å"No. I think that he should have chased after his list, even if it that wasn't one of the things on his list. He couldn't have written that on his list anyway because he didn't know the list would blow away. Ã¢â¬ Next, write these questions under the Ã¢â¬Å"On My OwnÃ¢â¬ heading. Read the questions aloud and then think aloud the answers. d. On My Own vii. Have you or somebody in your family even written a list of things to do? Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. I have written a list of things that I have to do on a weekend day because that is not like a school day.On weekends, I do lots of different things, so I have to write a list to remind myself of all the things I have to do. Ã¢â¬ viii. What would you do if you lost your to-do list and couldn't find it? Ã¢â¬Å"I would look for it for a while and if I couldn't find it, I'd write a new list of things to do. Ã¢â¬ 4. This would be followed up with guided practice, independent practice, assessment, and the reflecting/planning. References Fisher, D. , Brozo, W. G. , Frey, N. , & Ivey, Gay. (2011). 50 Instructional Routines to Develop Content Literacy. Boston:Pearson.
субота, 28 вересня 2019 р.
The Child Left Behind - Essay Example The increased emphasis that the NCLB Act places on the subjects of math and reading undermines the importance of all other subjects that are either equally or more important for the inculcation of the required academic and professional skills in the children. The goals that schools in conventional practice set for the students are not limited to the inculcation of general reading and math skills but also extend to the development of appropriate critical thinking skills, emotional intelligence, conflict resolution, self-discipline and the health and safety habits in the students. When there are sanctions to threaten the schools just in case they do not meet their expectations with respect to one particular goal, the schools are bound to have their attention diverted from the rest of the goals that are equally or more important than that one goal. Having been educated in the NCLB culture, my knowledge of or skill in arts, science, music, social studies and exercises is close to negligi ble. This is so because my teachers could not afford to spend time on such subjects because they feared they would have to face the most unfavorable consequences if they did. The problem of goal distortion has been recognized at various levels. Even the former education assistant secretaries Diane Ravitch and Chester Finn have realized the negative impact of overemphasis on one area upon the others. They said, Ã¢â¬Å"[If NCLB continues,] rich kids will study philosophy and art, music and history, while their poor peers fill in bubbles on test sheets. The lucky few will spawn the next generation of tycoons, political leaders, inventors, authors, artists and entrepreneurs. The less lucky masses will see narrower opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ (Ravitch and Finn cited in Rothstein). NCLB assesses the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning from the annual test which can in many ways be quite misleading. On certain days in the year, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s performance may be outclass while on others, his/her performan ce may be below average. It is not just the studies that are there in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life after all. The child may be upset because of some familial reason. The child may not be feeling well on the exam day. There can be hundreds of reasons for the declined performance on certain days. Taking this into consideration, there is dire need for multiple retesting in order to have an accurate assessment of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. In addition to that, the number of subgroups in a school also has an impact upon the childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance. The margin of error for the academic achievement of a subgroup is enhanced because of the smaller size of the subgroups in a school in comparison to a full-grade cohort. Accountability becomes increasingly inaccurate as the subgroups in a school integrate in increased numbers. Students cannot be sure that all students are proficient at the challenging level as is expected of them even if the math and the reading are paid excessive atten tion towards. The variability in human nature and skills prevents such proficiency irrespective of the disparities originating in the socioeconomic statuses of the students. The normal intelligence quotient (IQ) of the humans that accounts for about 66.66 per cent of the total human population starts from 85 and ends at 115 (Rothstein). What the
пʼятниця, 27 вересня 2019 р.
The Film GasLand - Movie Review Example This thesis intends to focus on the perspective presented through the film, Ã¢â¬Å"GasLandÃ¢â¬ and makes an attempt to build a different bent of mind and school of thought regarding the prevailing system of hydraulic fracturing and the aversive effects it brings on the ecology, environment, and society in the United States. GASLAND AND PERSPECTIVE Fox draws out effectively, the adverse effects that the natural gas drilling boom has brought into the environment, ecology, and lives of the people associated with the event since a decade. The chained effects of the hydraulic fracturing into the environment have been clearly stated, where the preys to the over and exhaustive engineering methodology have been exquisitely pointed out. The film definitely changed the perspective towards the prevailing hydraulic fracturing system in the United States, wherein according to Robert Kohler of Variety, the film depicted and brought changes in the perceptions regarding dangers pertaining to the event of natural gas drilling, very much similar to what the film Ã¢â¬Å"Silent SpringÃ¢â¬ did to DDT. Bio-centric and eco-centric ethics should influence the environment going forward and establish the interaction with it accordingly. The film at times depicted too much of inclination towards the communities affected by the natural oil and gas drilling. The fact that the boom in the industry has actually brought the adverse ecological and environmental adversities has been neglected at some point of time within the documentary.
четвер, 26 вересня 2019 р.
Consider a particular real organization of your choice which has an international profile. Discuss how the organization is adopt - Essay Example The core intention of the company is to produce automobiles in accordance with the needs along with the requirements of the customers. Additionally, the company maintains a balance between its production services and other factors such as environment, drivability, safety and reliability  (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2013). In this respect, the company aims to offer vehicles of enhanced features, so that customers are availed with products beyond their expectations. The company, in order to retain its worldwide position and provide customers with quality products has developed an effective global network  (Toyota Motor Corporation, 2013). Supply chain management (SCM) and logistics play a decisive role for TMC in obtaining required materials from suppliers proficiently and providing finished products to customers in the market segments appropriately. In general, SCM is regarded as a process, which is involved in the movement along with the storage of materials from suppliers to cu stomers. ... In this regard, the company has developed Ã¢â¬ËToyota Production SystemÃ¢â¬â¢ (TPS) with the aim of ensuring that materials along with inventories are handled properly. Additionally, TPS ensures that manufacturing along with logistics operations of the company are managed and integrated with the suppliers along with the customers (Strategos, 2013; Ludwig, 2013). With this concern, this essay intends to discuss about how TMC is adopting the principles of environmental along with social sustainability particularly in its supply chain management and logistics operations by using certain relevant examples. Discussion Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Logistics In the present business scenario, market competition has augmented due to increased level of globalisation and advent of technologies. In this regard, business organisations are required to adopt effective strategies for the purpose of enhancing their respective operational efficiencies and meeting the needs of customers with o ffering innovative products and/or services to them in a timely manner. SCM is a process comprising different activities in accordance with which supply of raw materials and distributions of final products and/or services are based upon. It develops a linkage between the suppliers and the consumers, so that a business organisation is able to execute its business processes and operations in a cost-effective manner. SCM is a procedure of managing the logistic activities of an organisation in order to make its operation and distribution cycle more productive. Additionally, SCM and logistics operations are required to conduct their operations in a social responsible manner and must take into concern
середа, 25 вересня 2019 р.
Teaching techniques. Differentiated Process, Product, and Content - Assignment Example Students are then encouraged to develop critical thinking skills by looking at writings and other forms of media that influence them today, and compare that to the time of the Founding Fathers as well. All of the objectives stated in the lesson are clearly explained to the students from the outset, and the main assessment related directly back to aforementioned learning goals. Because of the varied types of writing in existence during the time the Constitution was being written, and the plethora of different messages we receive today, this particular lesson and topic provides multiple opportunities to introduce differentiated instruction into the classroom. Based upon student interest, the instructor can tailor make various videos, multi-media, technology, and print based options for the students to learn the necessary concepts for this unit. Each of these strategies would fit the stated learning outcomes (that each student will understand the influence that others have on our way of thinking) and can be aligned to cover differentiated access, product, and content. Differentiated Process, Product, and Content In considering how to apply differentiation to this lesson, it is important that teachers remember that their role is to match the interest level of each student with the mode of instruction and assessment. For this particular unit, the teacher will need to consider the types of media that most influence each student in the class. This can include taking a learning inventory, or simply through observation, but the bottom line is that the instructor needs to bring the curriculum alive to the students. Implementing the differentiation process for this unit will enable each student in the class to understand the lesson objectives, presented in the form of source documents, in their own unique manner. In so doing, it is possible for teachers to differentiate the content, process, and product for their students (Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011). The differentiation of content refers to the change that occurs in the material as it is being taught and learned by each individual student in the class. As example of this for this particular lesson would be if the classroom objective is for all students in the classroom to be able to identify the reasons why source documents influence our thinking and way of life. In order to accomplish this task, some students may choose to focus on the original writings of the day, while other may choose to use modern day media to illustrate a real life example that is relevant today. The differentiation process actually refers to the way in which each student in the class accesses the material. One study, for example, may explore various writings contained an in actual historical text, while others may choose to review video representations of the same material. This process continues with the differentiation of product, which most commonly refers to the way in which a student demonstrates what he or she has actuall y learned. For this unit, that will take place via the individual or group products that are presented at the conclusion of the lesson. One group or individual might choose to present a skit, for example, while other will choose to demonstrate their findings via a PowerPoint. When implementing the differentiated process, the sky is truly the limit. Conclusion As teachers decide to differentiate their lessons, they must take into account the readiness, interest, and learning profile of each individual student in the class. In this case, readiness most commonly ref
вівторок, 24 вересня 2019 р.
Marriage is a private affair ( by Chinua Achebe) - Research Paper Example On the other hand, Igbo village is the symbol of ancient and rigid traditions. Encapsulating within the compass of a fascinating saga of love, Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage is a Private AffairÃ¢â¬ by Chinua Achebe, presents a conflict of old and new at different realms of life and include social, psychological and cultural perspectives. Thesis Statement The pieces of Achebe are stuffed into realism and his story; Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage is a Private AffairÃ¢â¬ is not an exception either. To evolve the realism in the story, Achebe employs myriad devices and techniques. This essay intends to give a detailed exposition to the thought process of Achebe and his devices used in the realm of physical, psychological and cultural elements in order to achieve realism in the story. Physical Reality Employed in the Story Achebe in his story, Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage is a Private AffairÃ¢â¬ tries to evoke the physical reality that appeals to all the five senses of a human being. On the plane of this appeal to the five senses, Achebe achieves the physical reality in the story. This technique of Achebe is much inspired from the romantic poetry, especially that of Keats. The only difference is the variation in consequence that the appeals at respective planes have manifested. In Romantic Poetry, there was a sheer feeling of ecstasy and here the technique is employed to generate realism in the story. All the senses of sight, smell, taste, sound and touch are evoked throughout the story to make it real and relate it to all the senses of mankind operating throughout. The sense of sight is evoked through the detailed description of the beauty and the good manners of the woman, whom NnaemekaÃ¢â¬â¢s father selects to marry. Here the usage of words and its representations are so strong that the sense is perfectly evoked through mere words: Ã¢â¬Å"I have found a girl who will suit you admirablyÃ¢â¬âUgoye Nweke, the eldest daughter of our neighbor, Jacob Nweke. She has a proper Christian upbringing. Wh en she stopped schooling some years ago her father (a man of sound judgment) sent her to live in the house of a pastor where she has received all the training a wife could need. Her Sunday school teacher has told me that she reads her Bible very fluently.Ã¢â¬ Nnaemeka, further narrates his acquaintance with the girl, Ã¢â¬Å"He remembered Ugoye quite well, an Amazon of a girl who used to beat up all the boys, himself included, on the way to the stream, a complete dunce at school.Ã¢â¬ These words suggest the visual imagery to the plane of realism where the light on the character of Nnaemeka is further revealed strongly (Achebe, Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage Is a Private AffairÃ¢â¬ ). The appeal of sight and smell is evoked through the description of the women of Ibo tribes in maintaining their household. Along with it, the good food that the Ibo women cook and its detailed description project the appeal of sight and smell. The sense of hearing is made pertinent through the literal audible s ilence that the readers go through after the confession of Nnaemeka (to marry Nene Atang) to his father Okeke, Ã¢â¬Å"I shall never see her,Ã¢â¬ was the reply. From that night the father scarcely spoke to his son. This feeling of gloomy silence which posses more sense of threat than OkekeÃ¢â¬â¢s thundering speeches evokes a true scene of hearing which can be perceived through the
понеділок, 23 вересня 2019 р.
Global Leadership and Management - Essay Example The researcher states that in the light of one salient threat to the Kids Retail, mentioned in its SWOT analysis, which is the competition posed by the kidÃ¢â¬â¢s shops of the big chains like Wall-Mart and Limited Corporation, the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s company could exploit this threat as a pivotal opportunity for international expansion. It is a pragmatic fact that the emerging kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ apparel companies simply cannot contend with the retail and logistics potential of the established big chains. Considering the fact that apparel retailing is a capital and investment intensive business, our company could opt to emerge as a leading kids Ã¢â¬Ëapparel brand by striking pan-global alliances with leading apparel retail stores like Wal-Mart, Sears and JC PennyÃ¢â¬â¢s. KidsÃ¢â¬â¢ apparel business is required to contend with a complex market, considering the fact that a large segment of the consumers tend to fall without the typical consumer profile. Hence the resources saved on es tablishing new stores and supply and logistics operations, courtesy the alliances forged with the big global chains could be better spent on coming out with large lines during the main selling seasons that are spring, summer, back to school and holidays. At an international level, kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ fashion happens to be one of the fast growing categories of clothing. So the time and resources saved by leaving retailing to the big clothing chains like Wal-Mart and JC PennyÃ¢â¬â¢s, the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s company could focus on its core competencies like monitoring the international trends in kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ clothing and fast adapting the products to the emerging trends.
неділя, 22 вересня 2019 р.
Passport automation system Essay The Passport Application System for Indian Nationals is being automated with a user-friendly interface and a strong back-end support. Every citizen of India who wishes to apply for his/her passport has to create a personal login account by registering himself/herself at first. From thereon, he/she can access the forms for the application process by logging in with the username and password for authentication. The passport applicant can apply either by: Normal application mode or Tatkal mode. Opting for the tatkal scheme costs the applicant an additional fee amount of Rs. 1000/- besides extra document proof submission. We basically have two categories of applicants: Fresh Passport Applicants Passport Renewal Applicants The applicants who are seeking their renewals must fill up an additional form regarding their old passport details. All the details entered by the applicants are validated upon submission and recorded in the database. The applicants have to scan and upload their original documents for proofs of citizenship, address, educational background, occupation, etc. The final step would be payment of the passport application fee that would be computed automatically based on the modes and category of applicant. After the payment is successfully carried out, an appointment date would be generated for in-person verification of the applicant by the passport authorities. A receipt slip would be generated as an acknowledgement for the completion of passport application process. SRS: 1. LOGIN/REGISTRATION: a. Basic Description . Users have to create their own login account by registering themselves. After filling up the registration form, the users can login to their account by entering username and passport for validation. b. Basic Flow: . New users will be directed to a registration page asking them to fill up the details like Name, DOB and other such trivial details. Filling up all the fields will be mandatory. Pre-Conditions: None Post-Conditions: After login, user will be prompted to choose the mode of applications. c. Alternative Flow: . If the user fails to login due to invalid username/password, the login screen will be reloaded again and again. Even if this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work, the user can try registering afresh. This usecase prompts the applicant to decide on either of the 2 application modes- normal or tatkal. b. Basic Flow . Entering into the normal mode will open up the application form directly. Pre-Conditions: Successful login with appropriate username and password. Post-Conditions: The applicant has to pay the passport fees according to the choice of application mode in a later stage. c. Alternative Flow . If the applicant chooses tatkal, an alert message is displayed indicating that additional charges are applicable. The flow resumes displaying the normal application form. Application Form: a. Basic Description . The applicant has to fill in all the mandatory fields in the given application form. Valid details are to be filled up without any ambiguity. b. Basic Flow . The applicant has to manually type in all the particulars required. Pre-Conditions: The applicant has to make his choice of mode of application. Post-Conditions: The form is subjected to validations. c. Alternative Flow . If the user wishes to terminate the session of form filling and proceed later, he can do so by quitting the process. If the user wants to renew his passport (i. e. not a fresh applicant), previous passport details are to be filled in for validation. b. Basic Flow . The renewal seekers are required to fill in their old passport details like Passport no, Date of Issue, Date of Expiry and Place of Issue Pre-Conditions: A valid old passport is to be produced to fill in the details. Post-Conditions: Authentication is done for the old passport existence before payment. c. Alternative Flow . None. 5. Document Submission: a. Basic Description Original documents need to be provided for various authentications by the passport authorities. b. Basic Flow . Scan the documents using a scanner and upload them to the database. This usecase validates the proofs of citizenship, address, education details, marital status and other such trivial details. Pre-Conditions: Valid documents like Birth Certificates, Licenses, Ration Cards, Bank Passbook, etc. Post-Conditions: Matching the submitted documents with the no of proofs required and validating. c. Alternative Flow . If the documents are insufficient, an alert message is displayed. Otherwise, no alternative flow here. 6. Fee Payment: a. Basic Description . The pre-computed payable amount is displayed in the form and payment options are displayed. b. Basic Flow . The payment is calculated based on the mode chosen (normal or tatkal) and the charges are listed explicitly. Payment is done here. Pre-Conditions: Completion of all forms and proper modes chosen already. Post-Conditions: Payment gateway is opened and receipt would be generated. c. Alternative Flow . Quit option to pay later on. Basic Description . This is the final step in passport automation process. A receipt is generated with an appointment date generated along with final application summary. b. Basic Flow . The generated receipt can either be printed (saved) to a file or directly printed using a printing device. Pre-Conditions: Full payment for passport is done. Post-Conditions: A valid receipt is generated as a proof of having completed the passport process. He/she has to visit the passport office in person on the appointment date allotted for final authentication.
субота, 21 вересня 2019 р.
Look Before You Leap Essay Tapiwa had served his employer faithfully for fifteen years. He had joined the company at the age of twenty and thrived to excel in every task that was given to him. The company rewarded him handsomely. He managed to get married to Tafadzwa after working for five years, and they had two beautiful children. The family enjoyed life since they could afford the very basics. Tapiwa drove to work while Tafadzwa stayed at home and took care of the household chores. The economy of the beautiful country of Zimbabwe began to nosedive and inflation reached its peak. Everyone felt the pinch of the inflation and Tapiwa was no exception. He switched to using public transport as driving was now a preserve of the rich. He would wake up as early as 4AM and get his kids to school. This routine became unbearable because he had to collect them from school into town and assist them to get home. He would get back to work after lunch . He started having problems with his superiorÃ¢â¬â¢s . Although they understood his predicament they could not justify his lateness to work. Frustration began to creep into his mind and he began to lose weight. He felt he could not continue and decided to resign from his job. He sought for his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s advice who advised him to wait a bit longer as he had hope that the economy would soon recover . After a long argument, his father gave in and asked him to go ahead with his plans. He asked for a second opinion from his immediate superior at work. He was advised not to quit but wait a little longer. But, Tapiwa had already made up his mind . He tendered in his resignation notice which was accepted with reservations. He was told his termination benefits would be processed within three months as this was company policy. Tapiwa left for South Africa where he hoped to get employed as a chemist. When he got there he discoved that life not as easy as he had expected. Getting a job in his area of training was proving to be a big challenge. He hopped from company to company and from pillar to post seeking for employment as a chemist, but the result was the same, negative. He eventually decided to get employment as a general hand. Working as a general laborer was not easy for Tapiwa. Frustration continued to grow within him. Many times he would curse the leaders of his country saying they were responsible for his problems. In many instances Tapiwa would go to sleep on an empty stomach. When he phoned his wife back home she would be complaining of hunger and how bad things were . It pained him more because the company he was now working for did not honor its part of the contract. After working for six months, he was paid the equivalent of three monthsÃ¢â¬â¢salary. The reason that his employer gave was company was reeling under the effects of the global economic meltdown. Tapiwa began to lose weight and his face could be mistaken for a patient. One day he decided to call his former employer back home. He was trying to negotiate for re-engagement. He was told it was told no longer possible because his position had already been filled . It pained him more to learn that people at the company were now earning foreign currency. After the call, Tapiwa took a walk and could be seen talking by himself. Tears rolled down his cheeks and he wept bitterly. He regretted why he ever made a decision of leaving his job for greener pastures which he discovered they were not green after all. He blamed no one but himself for putting his family into deep problems. He thought he should have taken a few daysÃ¢â¬â¢ leave for a feasibility study. Memories of how he had enjoyed life before the hyperinflationary economy hurt him. Comparing his present style of living in South Africa to the life back home haunted his mind even worse. Given a choice between the two he would choose to stay at home with his family. Every time he would sit to meditate, he could not help but recall his father telling him not to quit his job, but to wait for a while. The discussion he had a year ago with his immediate superior at his former employment, vividly played before him. He regretted he should have taken their advice . He had learnt that in life you do not make rash decisions when it comes to important matters. His tummy made a noise indicating to him it was time for refueling. It had been a while since he had a decent meal. He had learned it the harder way.
пʼятниця, 20 вересня 2019 р.
Educational System In Latvia Education Essay Education in Latvia is composed of levels: nine years compulsory, secondary and higher education. Vocational schools, art schools, business schools, schools for special types of children, schools for children with special needs and kindergartens also form part of the program. In vocational education programs lasting two or three years provide theoretical and practical knowledge. The majority of vocational schools in Latvia provide 2-3 and 4-year vocational education and training programs, but in special education schools or special education classes within general education schools provide education for children with special needs that correspond to each individuals physical and mental condition. There are private schools and universities, where fees are charged. But majority of students go to state schools which are free. The main purpose of the nine year school is the general intellectual and social development of the child. Children in Latvia are compulsory by law to attend school from the year when they turn seven till the age of 16. In some special cases the acquisition of basic education may last till the age of 18. Promotion from one grade to the next is based on the pupils skills in all school subjects and on the results of tests. In secondary schools most pupils follow a course that includes latvian, science, social studies, mathematics, physical education, foreign languages. Elective subjects may be chosen according to the students interests. A student is graded from 10 (outstanding) to 1 (failing) in each subject he takes. Students receive report cards twice a year. At the end of the 12th grade every school-leaver is supposed to take 2 compulsory exams chosen by the Ministry of Education and 3 exams in the subjects each individual student has selected himself. About 80% of young people graduate from school with a General certificate of education. To get this certificate each student must complete a specified number of subjects and pass 6 final exams graded no less than 4 and upwards. Usually pupils have a separate teacher for each subject. Schools in Latvia begin on September 1 and end near the end of May. The year is divided into semesters, typically- September- December- January- May. The school breaks for holidays 4 times a year. There is a week holiday at the end of October, 2 weeks at Christmas Holidays, a week at the end of March and 1 week at Easter. The basic school day comprises from 5 lessons in grades 1-3 up to 8 lessons in grade 9. The school year is 34 weeks long in first grade and 37 weeks in grade 9 per year. In Latvia have two sorts of higher education programmes academic and professional. Such a division of higher education allows the student to choose either research or professional activity in the future. Professional higher education is divided into two levels. First level professional higher education programmes lasting 2-3 years and there are both state-financed and private higher education institutions. 2. Early childhood education system in Latvia Children attend pre-school when they are under age of seven years, but it is also possiable to lenghten studying for one more year, if the kid has some health, psychological preparedness problems, considering desire of parents, family doctor, psychologist opinion. Early childhood education programms provides preparation to primary school, incluging the development of individuality, mental, physical, social development, independence, creativity, strengthening health and also improving basic skills of state language. Main type of activity for pre-school children is games, so the teaching process is organised that a children can learn by playing and by this learning process kids takes over community experience, acguire knowledge, skills to create attitudes, explore themselves and also act independently. In pre-school educational institutions it is not allowed by law to hold entrance examinations. The local government, in agreement with the Ministry of Education establishes, maintain and finance, as well as reorganize and liquidate pre-schools. 2.1. Curriculum in early childhood education All subjects in early childhood education and curriculum content is important for giving children a common understanding of environment that is arround them and develop their creative, logical thinking and in making curriculum for early childhood education it is importan to understand what children already can do and what they need to learn and what they need to improve and train. Curriculum in Latvias early childhood education includes such subjects: latvian language (children develop speech of mother tongue also improve knowledge of literature, folklore, literacy), natural-sciences (children learns constructing, creat mathematical ideas), social sciences and ethics ( children develop social skills, explore environment and also social life), music, physical education, that goes closly together with didactics of rhythm and movement, visual art ( children are improving creative side by drawing, painting, modeling), housekeeping and technology ( children are doing needlework, applique or origami). Teaching methods and curricum in early childhood education dipends from children stage of development and age. There is four levels in children stage of development. The first level is for kids till two years age, second level is for kids till three years, third level is for kids till five years and the last level is till age of six. Curriculum for each level, teaching methods and methodical approaches are profesionaly created by Latvian Education Curriculum Centre but it is not forbitten that teachers in early childhood education use their own professionaly created methods and materials. Now I want to speak more closly about curriculum and children levels of development. At the level first, when kids are one, two years old, they can learn throught observation( going in walks and observing environment and it can also be made together with older kids, for exchanging their ideas and observation outcomes), demonstration ( these demostrations can be made by showing some plants, mushrooms), movement games, musical games, manipulating objects and exploring real objects. In second level, when children are in a age of three years then mostly all methodical approaches are playful and children are learning throught simbolistic, plot, destructive, rhythm games (swiping palm hands and singing together) and practical work ( children are involved in independent work, for example writing calligraphy). Many games can be played with older children from different stages and levels of development. Such kind a approach improves social skills and experience exchange. In the third level, when kids are in age till five years old, then the main teaching and learning approaches is throught discussion, evalution, throught didactic games, construction games and story role games. In this level it is also very common to go in excursions, go for a walks and do some games or playful activities outside the kinderganten yard. Till the age of six, when kids are in the last level, then the most common methodical approaches to children are by experments, dialogues ( teacher asks questions and making diagolue with children, about what they have seen today or making dialogues about some stories and fairy-tales), dramatization and theatrical games and also folk games (One of the most famoust folk games in Latvia is Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾Kas dÃâÃ rzÃâÃ ? or Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾Whats in the garden? It is game in a circle and when teacher stops singing one of the kid find another child to put in a center of circle). 2.2. Rythm and movement in early childhood education Rythm and movement goes closly together with such kind a subjects as physical education, health and music and thats why am going to review curriculum of these subjects to understend better about rythm and movement importance in early childhood education curriculum. Physical education and health subjects main goal is to promote children health, strengthening their body, improving movement but music subject promote childrem emocional, intelectual development, knowledge about rhytm and improve creativity. The main tasks in physical education and health is to acuire the skills to manage the body and enhance the natural movement activity and promote children emotional, social development throught physical activity. For example curriculum for physical education and health includes stepping and running, crawling and climbing, throwing and capturing, rolling and jumping. All these process improves childrens movement. The way how can improve children stepping and running is by playing some movement games (Craw and at the same time rolling the ball, by this proces children learns to control direction of ball). For example in running, there is many tasks to improve it and the more older are children, the more difficult will be task and curriculum. When the kids are about two years old they are able to run freely throught the field, evading and not touching other play members, but when the kids are about four and five years old, then the level of running comes more difficult. As an instance kids have to run after each other, run in environment with barriers, cones, filled balls and run by doing curves and changing directions, but when the kids are about six years old, then they are able to use some rhythmical actions like run and at the same time kick to a ball. Crawling and climbing is one of the ways how to improve movements and strengthen body. In a first level, when kids are one, two years old, they can crawl and overcome a variety of high obstacles, but they are still learning to craw in direct route among objects and arround them. When the kids comes older, they can freely craw on rought surface also on wide, sloping surface. Kids can also suport moving by hand palms and feets, climb the stairs up and down. In a fourth level children is able to craw and roll the ball at the same time by controling balls direction. There is also throwing and capturing process in early childhood education curriculum. These proceses comes closly together with playful learning. In a first level of children development, they are able to throw some objects in uncertain directions and capture transmited objects from close distance, when children pass to next level they they are able to throw objects in freely choosen directions, but in a third level of development children is ready to throw objects in horizontal goals (box, basket) from a small distance. Children are also able to throw and capture objects from a short distance by working in pairs. In a fourth level of development children are able to throw objects in vertical goals and capter the ball after it has hurtled the ground. 2.3 Music and rhythm in early childhood education One of the most important learning subjects, that creates development of rhythm and movement is music. Music subject in early childhood develops motor coordination, sense of rhythm, encourage to play music and rhythm instruments. In a curriculum of music, there is such important process as singing, listening music, dance and musical rhythmical movements, use of rhythm and musical instruments. The subject singing includes working with folk songs, children songs, chants, vocal range and tune. In a first level of development in singing children are learning to sing a simple children songs in a small range, play together with teacher rhythm accompaniment to instruments. When the kids gets older and pass next level of development, thay can sing freely and naturally without tension and can use different tempo, sing songs with different accompaniment types, use rhythm instruments like rattles, sticks. Another curriculum subject is listening to music, that includes tempo, dynamics, sound layout, genres, songs. In a age one and two children are listening various sounds and voices and at the same time are learning to heard low and high register, linking it with an image. At this age children are also able execute variouty of movements while sound of music. With a time children gets older, they can recognise some specific musical instrument sounds and express their feelings about the composition and also recognise hearded composition. When children is five or six years old, they are able to improvise movements given by music, perceive music mood (character), genre (song, dance, march) and dinamics. The other subject in music curriculum is dance and musical rhythmical movement, wich includes such important objects as posture, pulsation, sounding gestures. In a first level of development children are able to listen music accompaniment and do movements of mimics and participate in simple musical and rhythmical plays. When children pass next stage of development, than they are able to perform some movements while listening musical accompaniment and learn most basic dance steps as well dance in couples, but when the kids are about five years old, they can do dance moves, dance steps and are also able to stand in circle, wich they can reduce or expand. In a age of six, kid is ready to dance simple dances, and throught musical accompaniment improvise movements and reproduce composition in their movements. In this age children are also able to acquire folk dance grib and do gallop steps. The last learning subject in music curriculum is rhythm and music instruments. In this subject it is very common to use rhythmical instruments, sound tools, pulse. In a age of three kids in early childhood are able to play some audio tools by listening accompaniment at the same time. Kids are also able to play some rhythm instruments like rattles ,beat with a stick. When children pass to next level of development and come bit older, they are able to recognize two or three musical instruments, improvise accompaniment with rhythm and musical instruments. 3. Riga Teacher Training and educational management academy The Academys goal is to provide each student with an opportunity to acquire professional and academic higher education in the areas of pedagogy, psychology, business and management, as well as motivation for professional life and constant self-improvement. RTTEMA prepares teachers who are able to prepare pupils for life and work in information society. RTTEMA is a conceptually and technically modern professional higher education institution and academy is founded by a state. It started its work in 1994 with 1273 students and now is one of the largest higher educational institutions in Latvia in terms of the number of students. Academy educates more than 3, 5 thousand students in full-time and part-time studies, employs 160 lecturers and docents, offers 25 study programs at college, bachelors, master and PhD levels. RTTEMA also organizes international conferences, publishes scientific articles, implements projects of scientific research, promote student and teacher international mobility, is an active member of international organizations. Academys intellectual environment consist of Pedagogic Scientific Institute, Creativity Scientific Institute, Child Language Research Center, Psychological Research Institute, Nature and Working Environment Institute, Several methodic centers, Young Teachers Club, RTTEMA Centre of Further Education, Library with stocks in 10 cities of Latvia. Students are provided administrative support at International Office and social support at Students Parliament. Apart from these units students have an opportunity of involving themselves in the following cultural undertakings, that are Mixed choir Fortius, female choir Balta, chamber orchestra Gaudeamus Orchestra, Big band, sports club, folk dance group Dejotprieks. In RTTEMA is also possible to study education programs that are related to rhythm and movement subjects, for example professional bachelors education programs and second level in the short vocational higher education program offers to study and become a Dance and Rhythmic Teacher or Music Teacher. Professional Masters program offers Dance Pedagogy, Music Pedagogy. If a student wants to get Bachelor degree in Dance and Rhythmic Teacher education program, then he/she has to study in full time for four years or in part time, that takes four years and three months. This educational program gives opportunity to work in a profession of dance and rhythmic teacher also manage dance groups. Main requirements of this program is to acquire theoretical base of pedagogy and psychology, link the theoretical conclusion with the practical work at school, primary school also acquire research skills and be able to use them in practical work, develop skills and abilities necessary for Dance and Rhythmic Teacher as well as personal qualities and competences. This education program includes a plenty of subjects like classical dance, historical dance, dance anatomy, composition of dance, rhythmic, methods of children dance, the notation of Latvian dance, jazz dance, didactics etc. Conclusion The Latvian education system is structured at four levels: primary, secondary, vocational and higher education. There are also private schools and universities, where fees are charged, but majority of students go to state schools which are free. Children in Latvia are obliged by law to attend school from the year when they turn seven till the age of 16. Children attend pre-school when they are under age of seven years, Main type of activity for pre-school children is games, so the teaching process is organised that children can learn by playing and by this learning process kids takes over community experience, acguire knowledge, skills to create attitudes, explore themselves and also act independently. Teaching methods and curricum in early childhood education dipends from children stage of development and age. There is four levels in children stage of development. Curriculum for each level, teaching methods and methodical approaches are profesionaly created by Latvian Education Curriculum Centre. Early childhood curriculum includes physical education and music subjects, witch goes includes knowledge about rhythm and movement. These subjects main goals are to promote children health, strengthening their body, improving movement but music subject promote childrem emocional, intelectual development, knowledge about rhytm and improve creativity. Rigas Teacher Training and educational management academy (RTTEMA) main goal is to provide each student with an opportunity to acquire professional and academic higher education in the areas of pedagogy, psychology, business and management, as well as motivation for professional life and constant self-improvement. In RTTEMA is also possible to study education programs that are related to rhythm and movement subjects, for example professional bachelors education programs and second level in the short vocational higher education program offers to study and become a Dance and Rhythmic Teacher or Music Teacher. Professional Masters program offers Dance Pedagogy, Music Pedagogy. Internet resources http://www.aic.lv/ENIC/en/enic/ed_in_Latv.htm, Retrieved November 24 http://izm.izm.gov.lv/education/education-system.html, Retrieved November 24 http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=20243, Retrieved November 26 http://www.rpiva.lv/index.php?mh=statistika, Retrieved November 26 http://viaa.gov.lv/files/news/1808/educ_in_latvia.pdf, Retrieved November 26
четвер, 19 вересня 2019 р.
"No Work, No FoodÃ¢â¬ 83 Hyakujo, the Chinese Zen master, used to labor with his pupils even at the age of eighty, trimming the gardens, cleaning the grounds, and pruning the trees. The pupils felt sorry to see the old teacher working so hard, but they knew he would not listen to their advice to stop, so they hid away his tools. That day the master did not eat. The next day he did not eat, nor the next. Ã¢â¬Å"He may be angry because we have hidden his tools,Ã¢â¬ the pupils surmised. Ã¢â¬Å"We had better put them back. The day they did, the teacher worked and ate the same as before. In the evening he instructed them: Ã¢â¬Å"No work, no food.Ã¢â¬ In life, people take many things for granted, whether it is how we play with our children, or what kind of job we do, or just simply having fun. For the older generation, taking things for granted wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t an option. In this simple passage, trying to convince someone to take it easy proved to be a very valuable lesson for some youngsters. When life gets to ruff, normally we tend to slow down a bit. Often the younger generation, healthy and strong, perceives that the older generation should take it easier than normal. However, in China, the Chinese Zen master doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to fit this scenario. They seem to carry the philosophy that each carries their own weight no matter what the consequence. The younger pupils felt the Master was working extremely to hard and knew that he would not to a break. Having this information, they concocted a plan to hide his work tools so he would have no choice but to take a break. As the day slowly elapsed into darkness, they realized the Zen master hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t eaten. This carried into the 3rd day and finally the pupils felt he was angry so they returned them to their original place and that evening, they noticed the master eating again.
середа, 18 вересня 2019 р.
Dante and Virgil's Relationship in Canto XIV of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno In Canto XIV of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s Inferno, Virgil describes the statue of the Old Man of Crete. Dante uses the Old Man of Crete as a metaphor for VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy in order to elucidate the nature of DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s and VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship. In the beginning of the metaphor, Dante carefully and methodically illustrates the grandeur of the Greek empire and Roman civilization. "[Mount Ida] was once chosen," Virgil explains, "as a trusted cradle/ by Rhea for her son" (XIV.100-101). According to Roman mythology, Rhea gave birth to Zeus, who ultimately became the father of all Greek gods and mortal heroes and served as the cornerstone of Greek civilization. Crete, thus, is the "cradle" or birthplace of Greek civilization. In the Aeneid, Crete is also the birthplace of the Roman civilization, a concept that is important because it already begins to point to the greatness of Virgil and his homeland. The position of the statue of the Old Man provides a straightforward glimpse of the status of Rome and the legacy of Virgil. Standing straight and "erect" (XIV.104), the Old Man "looks at Rome" with his back "turned toward Damietta" (XIV.104-105). The statueÃ¢â¬â¢s back faces Damietta, an ancient city in Egypt. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more important, though, is that the Old Man is facing Rome. This precise detail makes it clear that Dante the poet wants his contemporary readers to know that Rome is the direction towards which society is converging. The image of the statue looking at Rome "as if it were his mirror" (XIV.105) drives this point further. Within Rome, the Old Man sees a reflection of all of his characteristics; Rome is a natural extension of all the great aspects of the Greek culture, including... ...to the Romans. Virgil is the conduit through which the tradition of Homeric poets and Greek literature flows. On the other hand, Dante also seems to be describing the deterioration of VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy: the Old Man is "of choicest iron/ except for his right foot, made of baked clay; and he rests more on this than on the left" (XIV.109-111). Furthermore, "down that fissure there are tears that drip" (XIV.113). The tears are metaphors for the flowing away of VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy. The tears form the rivers of hell, which suggests that Dante is using VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s description of hell as a basis for his own vision. By doing so, he builds his reputation but takes away from VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s fame. Dante must stand on his own feet, which is the reason why the Old Man is leaning on his crumbling, "baked clay" foot. DanteÃ¢â¬â¢s challenge, then, is upholding VirgilÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy while building up his own.
вівторок, 17 вересня 2019 р.
In the early nineteenth century the United States began to split, but as mid-century came around, people became more polarized in their views and the union started to separate drastically. During the period of 1850, until 1861 when the Confederate States of America was formed, the union was clearly divided between the North and South. Although the Constitution was not the only factor leading to sectional tension in America, there are many strong points in the North and South favoring the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"By the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it had created. Ã¢â¬ Northerners, during mid-century America believed in the preservation of the undissolvable Union. When the Constitution was framed in 1787, the founding fathers were concerned about leaving Britain and becoming a Union, as opposed to the issue of slavery that would later prevail. Henry Clay created the Compromise of 1850, which helped solve the problem of slavery in the territories (Document A). This was not included in the Constitut . . . When the Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional under the Dred Scott decision, the due process clause, for the first time, was interpreted to state that people could not be denied their property, displaying that Calhoun was right all along. It is evident that although the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, many Northerners depicted its flaws. An anonymous Georgian, although somewhat contradictory, explained, Ã¢â¬Å"Two Constitutional provisions are necessary to secure Southern rights upon this important question,Ã¢â¬âthe recognition of slavery where the people choose it and the remedy for fugitive slaveÃ¢â¬ (Document B). Sectional difficulties that lead to the break up of the Union can be traced to flaws in the Constitution, although there are other factors as well. In events such as John BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s Raid, the North solemnly respected Brown, holding commemoration services in his memorial. This shows that the founding fathers thought well ahead of their time and created a Constitution that included answers to many questions, although, in general, this document eventually contributed to the collapse of the Union. President Jefferson Davis of the Confederate States of America, believing that states were sovereign over the Union, stated, The separate and independent sovereignty of each State was merged into one common government and nationÃ¢â¬ (Document H). The Constitution includes the three-fifths clause, along with and end to the African slave trade. After the fugitive slave law was enacted, many personal liberty laws were created in the North and colored people were notified, Ã¢â¬Å"You are hereby respectfully CAUTIONED and advised, to avoid conversing with Watchmen and Police Officers of BostonÃ¢â¬ (Document C). Just as Northerners saw flaws in the Constitution, Southerners viewed it not to be perfect as well. President James Buchanan, a northern man with southern sympathies clarified, Ã¢â¬Å"As sovereign states, they and they alone, are responsible before God and the world for the slavery existing among themÃ¢â¬ (Document G). Regarding the Fugitive Slave Law, a Bostonian Transcendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson stated, Ã¢â¬Å"As soon as the Constitution ordains an immoral law, it ordains disunionÃ¢â¬ ¦The Union is at an end as soon as an immoral law is enactedÃ¢â¬ (Document D). The constitutionality of the protective tariff was questioned during the panic of 1857, which Northerners blamed on the South. Yet another Bostonian, William Lloyd Garrison, an abolitionist reformer exclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"The Constitution which subjects them [slaves] to hopeless bondage is one that we cannot swear to supportÃ¢â¬ (Document E). Although the Constitution is clearly flawed because extremist on both sides had problems with it, this document, which is the supreme law of the land, does have positive aspects. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- By the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it has created. This was shown by ambivalent interpretations of the constitution and other important documents when assorted together. It is known that the union did not last, for there was the Civil War. If everyone could agree on what the constitution implied, then there probably would not have been a civil war. From several of the documents, there are arguments about what the constitution states. (Document E), Ã¢â¬Å"To the Argument, that the word Ã¢â¬ËslavesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËslaveryÃ¢â¬â¢ are not to be found in The Constitution, and therefore it was never intended to give any protection or countenance to the slave system, it s sufficient to reply, that no such words are continued in the instrument, other words were used, intelligently and specifically, to meet the necessities of slavery. Ã¢â¬ This indicates that the constitution CAN be interpreted differently, and when used with other pertinent documents, can be incongruous. Those views that differentiated were of those in the North and South. The Constitution can be interpreted in many different ways, which leads to sectional discord and tension. For many reasons, the South evidently did not like what the constitution said. There were many conflictions with the compromise of 1850, map shown in (Document A) and the fugitive slave act. Certain northerners were so against slavery and the fugitive slave act that they even posted warnings for the slaves. (Document C), [shows how kidnappers were being sent after the slaves, and how Northern abolitionists were revolting against the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s rules and regulations. ] This fugitive slave act also helped drive the tension deeper into the Un-United States. With drama now rumbling in the American underbellies, the small weight of anything slightly bad could set off a secession bomb. A freesoiler does not want to spread slavery, but he is okay with keeping it in a state it is already in. When the idea of popular sovereignty came about with the compromise of 1850, map shown in (Document A), those freesoilers in office were pushed harder into complex decisions over the popular sovereignty issue. (Document F) Ã¢â¬Å"FORCING SLAVERY DOWN THE THROAT OF A FREESOILER,Ã¢â¬ illustrates this in a very blatant text and disturbing political cartoon. All of the tension gathering, even authors were predestining the Civil War. Ralph Waldo Emerson believed that the Constitution, (when assorted with others like the fugitive slave law or the compromise of 1850) were contradictory, and that they aid to the now inevitable seeming end of the union. (Document D) Ã¢â¬Å"What kind of legislation is this? What kind of constitution which covers? Ã¢â¬ ¦ I suppose the union can be left to take care of itselfÃ¢â¬ ¦. But one thing appears certain to me, that , as soon as the constitution ordains an immoral law, it ordains disunion. The law is suicidal, and cannot be obeyed. The union is at an end as soon as an immoral law is enacted. And he who writes a crime into the statute-book digs under the foundations of the capitol to plant there a powder-magazine, and lays a trainÃ¢â¬ This proves that By the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it has created. This was shown by ambivalent interpretations of the constitution and other important documents when assorted together
понеділок, 16 вересня 2019 р.
Two Hundred years of American history of childbirth has been fairly, thoroughly and sensitively examined by Leavitt. The main argument she focuses on in the book is the shrewd common commencement of giving birth to a child. This phenomenon is not only a natural event but an important part in the common description of womanhood. In the Past, natural differences have been preserved in the sexual dissection of labor. The communal globe resolutely given to men, being a mother is the center of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s survival with giving birth to a baby her most appreciated work.The emphasis of Leavitt is on the childbearing centrality to women living her life which guides her to center on the altering personality of giving birth and the relationship a women has to it. The story of Leavitt clarifies from the viewpoint of women giving birth and also of the medical occupation. Cautiously and creatively, she discloses the attractive interaction between the different damage of common and medical chang es have affected the lives of women usually and in particular childbirth.The dialectical association between society and medicine is lit up in the discussion of Leavitt of the entry of a physician into the room where children are born and the means by which women on their own resolute the limit of medical contribution in this customarily area of women. Distant from extension unreceptive losses of their own ecology, for the better part of the era women who gave birth got the emotional power from the normal femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s support systems.In the 1930s childbirth moved permanently to the hospitals, before those women themselves who gave birth were the liveliest causes of alteration in the history of American Childbirth. The preservation of determination of women and traditions of females to form events in their own rooms of childbirth imitated a basic feminist desire. Even though giving birth is the sign of customary womanhood, it was the focal point of the arrangement women constructe d to conquer the restrictions of custom and eventually to extend the sphere of females.The use of LeavittÃ¢â¬â¢s confidential writings of women of America maintain her analysis that women had the control in the child birth room and only gave up this authority to the medical occupation after cautious thought of the options. LeavittÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is realistic that medical experts did not come in without an invitation nor they forced their knowledge, their pincers, asepsis or anesthesia on their miserable patients. The middle and upper class American women would comprise the first line of the fresh medical and social development.Therefore they were active in changing birth of a child from a conventional concern of females into a medical occupation where attention is needed of the experts and eventually the patient is hospitalized. The women who gave birth knew about the options they had with respect to medical intrusion and male attendance. Nothing was forced upon them. The femin ist viewpoint of this book does not mean to bash a doctor. The author points that physicians in America were largely male and they were very alert of their proposition in the mortality rates and maternal morbidity.They struggled to enhance the technique and training of obstetric for the well being of the infant and mother. As a result the occupation has keenly known a better path which is safe and it allows nature to do its work and unwarranted medical intrusion. The result of any intense was often a tragedy for the family. Regardless of the substantial influence that women had for a long time in the room which children were born, by early 1950s they had given their authority and their support system for birth of a child only amongst strangers. As the author challenges the medical side of child birth involved some decisive achievement and losses.By the middle of the 20th century, childbirth was as safe like never before. For the women of America, the individual cost was a isolation from their own experience of childbirth and a callous of the bonds which had conventionally combined them with all the other mothers. Now the pendulum had turned from a customary childbirth to childbirth as a problem of medical experts. The study of Leavitt confirms that physicians and women should divide the liability for the development of childbirth like we are now used too. According to Leavitt, if more changes are made this will allow women to regain the familiarity.The two hundred years covered by Leavitt and her efforts to believe childbirth from the viewpoint of the medical profession as well as women, the book is amazingly logical. As normally the case is the approach loans itself to recurrence of arguments, instances and also quotes but these are small arguments. More significantly, like all the other ground breaking analyses, this one raises a bit of debatable questions. One can be that, given the undividable life of infant and maternal transience, a bit more thought of t he childbirth impact on its final creation would have been valuable.As many women faced the tragedy of losing a child either during or after birth, some would face this tragedy more than once in her life; this seems to be one of the emotional sides of childbirth which requires more expansion. The accessibility of different basis has also prohibited any but transient thought to the familiarity to the women in the working class, who had a lesser choices when giving birth. How can these sorts of women sense the rising violation of medication in the childbirth room? Do they have the same kind of luxury network that upper and middle class women have?Did they eagerly pursue their luckier sister to the hospital? Even though the author cannot be held responsible for setting up limits on her complete study, these questions can make up an exciting follow to her book. However Brought to Bed is an astonishing donation to the women history and also of medicines. It does really tell about the tra nsfer from a self done childbirth to a childbirth done medically. Reference page Ã¢â¬ ¢ Judith Walzer Leavitt (1988) Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750-1950. Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
неділя, 15 вересня 2019 р.
Throughout the 20th century a strong focus was placed on the principles behind management with Henri FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s 1916 publication Ã¢â¬ËAdministration Industrielle et GÃ ©nÃ ©raleÃ¢â¬â¢ being one of the first books aimed solely at deciphering and understanding the intricate concepts of management. In his book Fayol presents his classical model of management from the perspective on an executive. Fayol lists and discusses fourteen principles of management which, although non-exhaustive, provides a guide on the execution of what he proposed to be the five elemental processes of management. These five primary processes consisted of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling which advocated FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s support of a dynamic system of management. In response to changing contexts, other new theories have been placed forward by other distinguished academia such as Henry Mintzberg (1973), John Kotter (1982) and C.P. Hales (1986) which offer more concurrent perspectives on the concept of management. Born in 1841 Henri Fayol had, after a three decade career as a mining practitioner, committed himself to the promotion of his theories on administration in 1916 through the publication of his book Ã¢â¬ËAdministration Industrielle et GÃ ©nÃ ©raleÃ¢â¬â¢ up until his death in 1925. Contextually influenced by the bourgeois environment of a post revolutionized France, Fayol advocated the notion of a flexible system of management which could be applied to more than just one setting. In his book, Fayol devotes more time and focuses on the five processes of management in contrast to the fourteen management principles as claimed by (Fells, M.J., 2000, p. 358). The first element, planning, is defined Ã¢â¬Å"both to assess the future and make provision for itÃ¢â¬ (Fayol, 1949, p.43). He goes on to describe that this dynamic plan must take into account a list of factors such as resources, work-in-progress, and future trends. Organizing considers the functional components of organizations along with the personnel and discusses the ideal conditions required of them. Commanding considers the responsibility that falls on every manager. The goal of managers is to achieve maximum contribution from personnel towards the welfare of the company through a number of factors. An example of these factors would be elimination of the unproductive, having a thorough knowledge of personnel and their respective binding agreements and an aim to be a role model. The third element ofÃ management is coordinating which is defined as the harmonisation of resources in their optimum proportions in order to achieve results (Fayol, 1949, p. 103). The indicators of a well coordinated organization include efficient departments which harmonize well with the rest, are well informed of their responsibilities and also work to constantly adjusted schedules based on circumstantial demands. The last element, control, focuses on the timely verification of plan implementations. This element is applicable to all the other processes and its sole purpose is to identify any complications, amend any issues and prevent future recurrences. Due to their flexibility in implementation, the correlation between the introduction of FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s model and the sharp rise in US productivity levels as well as living standards supports his approach to management (Fells, M.J., 2000, p. 348). FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is supported by another academic source (Hales, 1989, p. 12) which claims that Ã¢â¬Å"Fayol grasped the essence of managementÃ¢â¬ through his classical formulation of the management functions. In 1973, Henry Mintzberg provided a new conceptualization about the roles of managers through his book Ã¢â¬ËThe Nature of Managerial WorkÃ¢â¬â¢. Through his composition Mintzberg proposed and argued that the previously accepted role of managers which adhered to a systematic approach of planning, organizing, coordinating, leading and controlling were in fact false as through his diary analysis, Mintzberg was able to demonstrate that Ã¢â¬Å"the manager is not a planner in a reflective sense, and no amount of admonition in the literature will make him so. His milieu is stimulus-response.Ã¢â¬ (Mintzberg, 1973, p. 182). By performing an unstructured observation and interview procedure over a two week period, Mintzberg concluded the activities of his study managers could be categorized into three sets of behaviors or roles. He conceptualized these clusters of roles as: interpersonal, informational and decisions (Pearson et al, 2003, p. 696). Mintzberg also recognizes that all managers at some time exercise each of these rules but also that different levels of managers will give different priorities to them (Mumford, 1988, p. 3). In terms of contemporary management, Fayol and Mintzberg have contributed greatly to the understanding regarding the concept of management. HoweverÃ both authors are not exempt from criticisms regarding their approaches. FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s approach is widely considered to be too theoretical whilst MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s approach has been criticized for not being theoretical enough. Despite their differences in approach, fundamentally the two theories not only share the same Ã¢â¬ËelementsÃ¢â¬â¢ under the guise of differently labelled terms, they compliment each other in terms of validity due to the strong correlation between results regarding the behaviour of managerial positions. (Fells, M.J., 2000, p. 359) supports this judgement as the journalist goes on to state that not only are FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s principles still relevant, they are interrelated at an elemental level with the model of Mintzberg. (Lamond, 2004, p. 350) reinforces this argument through study conducted on a large sample of male and female managers of different ages and at different managerial levels. Not only did the survey confirm that there were indeed a central set of manager functions, as placed forward by Fayol, there were also a generic set of managerial behaviours as proposed by Mintzberg. In concluding despite their contextual differences, Henri FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËAdministration Industrielle et GÃ ©nÃ ©raleÃ¢â¬â¢ and Henry MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Nature of Managerial WorkÃ¢â¬â¢ fundamentally share the same innate elements. This is supported by the results which derived from studies conducted by academic sources such as (Lamond, 2004) as well as the research by other academic sources (Fells, M.J. 2000), (Pearson et al, 2003), (Hales, 1989) and (Mumford, 1988). Subsequently both approaches are considered valid and have without a doubt contributed greatly to contemporary management theory. Bibliography Fells, M.J. 2000 Ã¢â¬Å"Fayol stands the test of time.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Management History, vol 6, no.8, 345-360 Lamond, D. 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"A matter of style: reconciling Henri and Henry.Ã¢â¬ Management Decision, vol. 42, no.2 p. 330-356 Pearson, C.A.L. And Chatterjee, S.R. 2003, Ã¢â¬Å"Managerial work roles in Asia. An empirical study of MintzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s role formulation in four Asian countries.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Management Development, vol. 22, no. 8 p. 694-707 Hales, C. 1989, Ã¢â¬Å"Management Processes, Management Divisions of Labour and Managerial Work: Towards a Synthesis.Ã¢â¬ International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 9, no. 5/6, p. 9-38 Mumford, A. 1988, Ã¢â¬Å"What Managers Really DoÃ¢â¬ Management Decision, vol. 26, no. 5, p. 28-30
субота, 14 вересня 2019 р.
Assignment #1 Subject: pak &Islamic studies Class: BSCS-1C Last Date: 01-10-2012. Max. Marks: 10 Instructor name: Dr. Mahboobullah Date: 17-09-2012 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Instructions: 1. The assignment is research base so general in formations will not be appreciated. 2. Do not write more than five pages. One side of the page is considered one page. 3. No such assignment will be accepted which reveals the struggle of a single person. 4.No late assignment will be accepted without unavoidable excuse. 5. No re-take of assignment. 6. Write on the following format. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Topic: Prop osed reforms in the present politics It is appreciated that the following points are discussed. 1. Definition of politics. 2. Politics with the relation of politics. 3. Politics in the golden ages of Islam. 4. The present political system. a. The leadership. b. The constitution. c. Implementation of rules and laws. d. Flaws in the constitution and legislative structure. 5.The proposed reforms. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Good luck by the teacher Assignment no. 1 The topic: Name of the student: Class: Enrollment no: Assignment Date:Submission Date: Submitted to: Table of contents: Topic:page no. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Start of contents: References: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assignment #2 Subject: pak &Islamic studies Class: BSCS-1C Time allowed: 18-10-2012. Max. Marks: 10 Instructor name: Dr. Mahboobullah Date: 27-09-2012 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Instructions: . The assignment is research base so general in formations will not be appreciated. 2. Do not write more than five pages. One side of the page is considered one page. 3. No such assignment will be accepted which reveals the struggle of a single person. 4. No late assignment will be accepted without unavoidable excuse. 5. No re-take of assignment. 6. Write on the following format. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Topic: Importance of morality teachings in educational institution 1. Importance of morality. 2.Emphasis of Islam on good morality. 3. Importance of good morality in curriculum. 4. The morality which should be included in educational institutions. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Good luck by the teacher Assignment no. 2 The topic: Name of the student: Class: Enrollment no: Assignment Date:Submission Date: Submitted to: Table of contents: Topic:page no. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Start of contents: References: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Assignment #3 Subject: pak &Islamic studies Class: BSCS-1C Time allowed: 01-11-2012 Max.Marks: 10 Instructor name: Dr. Mahboobullah Date: 18-10-2012 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Instructions: 1. The assignment is research base so general in formations will not be appreciated. 2. Do not write more than five pages. One side of the page is considered one page. 3. No such assignment will be accepted which reveals the struggle of a single person. 4. No late assignment will be accepted without unavoidable excuse. 5. No re-take of assignment. 6.Write on the following format. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â Topic: Loyalty with the family, educational institutions and your country 1. Loyalty and Islam. 2. Loyalty with the family.. 3. Loyalty with the educational institutions. 4. Loyalty with the country. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Good luck by the teacher Assignment no. 3 The topic: Name of the student: Class: Enrollment no: Assignment Date:Submission Date: Submitted to: Table of contents: Topic:page no. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Start of contents:
пʼятниця, 13 вересня 2019 р.
Characteristics Of Heavyweight Methodologies Information Technology Essay Software is part of modern society for over 50 years. Software development began as a chaotic business and is often cited as the code and fix. The software program was written without much of the plan and design of the system. Also, it was set with many short term decisions. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s fine for small systems, but as systems grow it turned out as increasingly difficult to add new features and bugs were harder to fix. This style of development was used for many years until this was replaced by an alternative: Methodology. This imposed a disciplined process for software development in order to make software development more predictable and efficient. Traditional methods are based on the work plan and begin to extract a complete set of documentation requirements, the architectural and high level of project development and control. Because of these serious aspects of this method has become known as heavy. Some practitioners realized this software development process frustrating. As a result, several consultants have independently developed methodologies and practices to adopt and respond to inevitable changes they have experienced. These methods and practices are based on multiple components, a technique that was introduced in 1975 and which became known as an agile methodology. Agile methodology is gaining popularity in the industry, although they compromise a mix of accepted and controversial software engineering practices. Software industry is likely to prove that the specific features of the project, such as the purpose, scope, requirements, resources, architecture and size will determine the methodology that fits those best. Dynamic and heavy or perhaps a hybrid of the two. In the past few years, anecdotal evidence and success of practicing professionals suggests that effective methods are effective and suitable for a variety of situations and environments. However, empirical studies are urgently needed to assess the effectiveness and possible use of agile software development methods. Heavyweight methodologies Heavyweight methodologies are considered the traditional way of software development. These methods are based on the following series of steps such as defining requirements, solution building, testing and deployment. Heavyweight methodology requires defining and documenting a stable set of requirements at the beginning of the project. Waterfall approach emphasizes a structured progression between certain phases. Each stage consists of a term set of activities and tasks that must be met before the next stage can begin. The phases are always named in different ways, but the basic idea is that in the first phase tries to capture what the system will do, its system and software, in the second phase determines how it will be designed. The third stage is where developers start writing the code; the fourth step is testing the system and final phase focuses on tasks such as training and documentation. However, in engineering practice, the term waterfall is used as the generic name for all subsequent methods of software engineering. Waterfall Model Life Cycle Unified Process AllÃ activities,Ã includingÃ modeling, isÃ divided intoÃ workflowsÃ in theÃ Unified ProcessÃ (UP) and takes placeÃ in anÃ iterativeÃ andÃ incremental manner. In this process the process is divided into four phases. The below diagram depicts the stages of this process:
Q1 - Assignment Example However, the insurance companies will have to provide coverage to every individual, without limit even to those with pre-existing health conditions. This process has been termed unconstitutional by US state supreme courts, arguing that the Americans should not be forced into health care coverage. Whether or not the bill solves the issue of health care as a privilege depends on the general implication of implementing the bill. The bill is likely to throw away individual mandate if implemented. What this means for the healthcare industry is that the pricing policies in the industry are prone to enormous changes that may not end up favoring the end user of the health insurance. Individual mandate provides a constant and a large pool of insurance coverage purchasers. In this regard, repealing the individual mandate is likely to increase American health insurance premiums. It is important to point out that the Americans who will be without insurance cover will opt to make use of emergency rooms as their healthcare procedure. As a result, the accrued costs from emergency rooms procedure will be shifted to the insured. The lawÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to extend health insurance coverage to the American community. However, the law is prone to failure in the context of the high insurance premiums. This bill therefore, and the resultant law therein may not solve the health care issue as anticipated. The new health care bill has taken ethical and legal turns, with its applicability and benefit to the American society questioned. The Americans are expected to be health insured by the year 2014. Violation of this law will attract penalties as outlined in the law. However, the entire process has been termed unethical, because the law seeks to force people to comply. Freedoms of choice are hereby violated. The insurance companies will also be forces to cover all individuals, those with pre-existing
четвер, 12 вересня 2019 р.
Primate communication and language - Essay Example One research shows one primate seeking the help of another primate to increase the communicating primateÃ¢â¬â¢s groom activities. The young primate gives a happy inviting sound to other young primates to play among the trees. One research shows the playing young primate raise their arms to indicate they want to play with the other nearby young primates (Pika 41). The research shows one playful chimpanzee poked the other young primate. The poking was a clear signal that the poking chimpanzee was inviting another chimpanzee to play. The communication language helps the nonhuman primates adapt to different environments. In the caring for the young environment, the researchers observed that the mother apes communicated by nodding their heads, similar to human nodding of heads to say no. The primate mother nods to stop their babies from playing with their food. The water seems to persuade the baby to eat the food. When the mother ape was climbing a tree with her baby hanging to her back for safety, the mother used this environment to shake her head as she looks at her baby. She communicates to the baby to stop her from climbing the tree. The mother fears that the baby may fall from the tree and crash down to her death. In another Arnhem Zoo research, the ape researcher observed during a close family get together environment that the mother shook her head. The mother is communicating to her baby not to approach a mad or bad mood male chimpanzee. The mother fears that the male chimpanzee may physically hurt the baby during times of anger, stress, or in a bad mood (Boos 278). The male chimpanzee may bring out his anger on the innocent and knowledge-wanting baby chimpanzee. During the environment of mating, the male gorillas hoot to make love overtures to their female gorilla members. The apes howl their message across to their group members. In another 2007 nonhuman primate survival research, the researchers observed that the young chimpanzee asked for food
середа, 11 вересня 2019 р.
Ikea Global Sourcing Challenges - Case Study Example As the discussion stresses if the child labor evidence being utilized at Rangan Exports is precise, the supplier is in direct infringement of IKEA's clause of no child labor. Barner has two clear option decisions in managing this circumstance. In the first place, she can end the contract with the supplier in light of their rupture of the no child labor procurement. This option is legitimate and reliable with. The potential disservice of this option is that it may deny IKEA of a lucrative supplier relationship, and it might briefly slice off access to Indian floor covering sources. In that capacity, it might antagonistically effect IKEA's main concern. Barner's other alternative is to give the supplier a "notice" however look after relations, with the admonition that the supplier quit utilizing child laborers. This would have the upside of keeping up a conceivably lucrative supplier relationship.This paper highlights thatÃ it would likewise give IKEA the chance to "instruct" supplie rs about the perils of child labor. On the drawback, this activity would be in spite of IKEA's set up policies. It could make an impression on different suppliers that IKEA may furtively excuse child labor while straightforwardly censoring it.Ã Neglecting to do as such would send the wrong message to different suppliers, expanding their dealing power, and damages IKEA's particular policies. Besides, it leaves IKEA open to charges of exploitative conduct.
вівторок, 10 вересня 2019 р.
Radioisotopes in Medicine - Essay Example There are neutrons found in the nucleus. These are the neutrons which give an element a radioactive status. Unlike the protons, these neutrons are found in the different number of different at atoms of the same element and based on this difference in the number of neutrons the isotope status is acquired by an element. The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom is called its atomic mass. So atomic number of all atoms of an element is the same but atomic mass could be different (Medical isotopes). There are some elements which decay and are converted to isotopes that posses the properties of unstable isotopes; examples are uranium and thorium. The same isotopes can be generated artificially when it does not exist naturally in some elements. This is achieved by a combination of protons and neutrons. These radioisotopes can be obtained through a variety of ways but the most frequent way of producing radioisotopes is by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor. There are two major outcomes which give radioisotope status to an element, either by gaining a neutron and making an atom neutron rich or by gaining a proton and resulting in proton rich atom. The unstable state of a radioisotope is converted to stable one by the emission of alpha or beta particle with some energy release in the form of gamma rays. In fact, this is radioactive decay of that atom. In medicine, these radioactive products are termed as radiopharmaceuticals (Medical isotopes).Ã Around the first decade of the last century there had been some initial, discussions on the issues of radioactivity and radioisotopes like thorium and ionium. Most of the radioisotopes which are in more frequent use today were discovered during the third decade of the last century. Radioactive isotopes like, iodine-131, cobalt-60, technetium-99m and others were discovered during a short period of three years (1938-1941) (Radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment).Ã Till mid-seventies of the last century there was not much development in the field when some newly discovered radioisotopes along with technetium-99m revolutionized the field of nuclear medicine when technetium-generator made it practical to convert inactive pharmaceuticals to be labelled on the hospital premises (Radioisotopes in medicin). In 1980s, gamma cameras performance was improved through computer integration which helped in enhancing the processes and eventually the quantification of the radioactivity emitted. (Radioisotopes in medicin). Around the last decade of the last century the image quality as well as details were made improved with the help of single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) systems. Radioisotopes utilization in MedicineÃ Radioisotopes have been utilized in medicine very extensively for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic purposes.